Some Major Stylistic Periods of Medieval Art and Architecture

                                                                          Churches, Abbeys, Cathedrals, Basilicas and Monasteries.

England, Wales, Scotland, Sweden, Denmark and Norway;            Please follow this link

England   1. Anglo-Saxon                         (c450-1066)                   archwaydoorway and quoin of Odda's chapel and window of  St. Mary's, Deerhurst, font of St. Mary's,
                                                                                                      Frampton on Severn, sculpture in Saint Laurence, Bradford on Avon, belltower
                                                                                                      windows 1 2 of  St. Bartholomew's, Cadeleigh, belltowers 1 2 of St. Swithun's,
                                                                                                      Sandford and St. Mary's, Upton Hellions, window of  St.Matthews, Cheriton
                                                                                                      Fitzpaine, tower of St. Oswalds church, Highnam, tower of St. Michael's
                                                                                                     church, Oxford, tower (random) of St. Mary's church, Great Washbourne.
               2. Celtic                                     (c500-1150)                  Font of St. Mary's, Deerhurst.
               3. Romanesque                          (c1066-1150)                Wall paintings of St. James' church, Stoke Orchard, nave of St. Mary's, Kempley,
                                                                                                      doorway of Kilpeck church, doorway of Saint James, Jacobstowe, columns 1 2 of
                                                                                                      St. Swithun's, Sandford and St. Mary's, Upton Hellions, windows of Glastonbury Abbey
                                                                                                      archways1 2 of St. Mary and Holy Trinity church, Buckland Filleigh. 
               4. Norman                                (1066-1180)                   corner capital (s)of Buckfast Abbey, windows of St. Andrew's church, Bere Ferrers, 1 
                                                                                                      (interior view) (linear), 4 (interior view) (detail)(random) (*), window of Kilkhampton church,
                                                                                                       window of St. Martin and Mary's, Chudleigh, windows of St.Petroc's church, Lydford  1 (harmonic),
                                                                                                      2 (random), 3 (harmonic, random), windows of St. Mary's, Huxham 1 (harmonic)  2 (random),
                                                                                                      window (harmonic) of St.Mary's, Exbourne, arch scroll of  St. James, Jacobstowe, windows
                                                                                                      (interior view) (harmonic) of  Winchester Cathedral, windows of Tewkesbury Abbey, window
                                                                                                      (random) of St. John the Baptist church, Netherexe, belltower (detail) (harmonic) of Exeter Cathedral,
                                                                                                      windows of St. Peter the Poor Fisherman, Revelstoke, 1 (interior view)2 (interior view)
                                                                                                      (harmonic),  window (random) of St. Disen's church, Bradninch, south doorway of St. Mary's
                                                                                                      church, Great Washbourne, gargoyle, pillar (random) and stones of St. Euny's church, Redruth,
                                                                                                      windows 1 (harmonic) 2 (random) of , King Charles the Martyr's church, Falmouth, font details
                                                                                                     1 2 of St. Margaret's church, Topsham, Exeter, tower of St. Nicholas of Myra's church, Ozleworth,
                                                                                                      capitals 1 2 3 of St. Mary the Virgin church, Iffley.
               5. Response to Geometric          (1240-1280)                 Shields at St. Andrew's church, Cullompton and Thomas A Becket's church, Sourton, Devon.
               6. Curvilinear. (Decorated)        (c1275-1380)                Chapterhouse of Southwell Minsterwest window of York Cathedral ,windows of St. Mary's Cheltenham;
                                                                                                      1 2 3 4 5 6 7vault of Ottery, St. Mary's, Devon, cloister windows 1 2 3 4 5 6, and  rose window of
                                                                                                      Exeter Cathedral.
France;    1.  Carolingian                          (c768-840)                     Oratory of Germigny-des-Pres.
                2.  Celtic                                  (c1125-50)                     Clearstorey fragments of the Abbey of Saint-Marie-de-la-Regle, Limoges.
                3.  Romanesque                       (c1000-1200)                 Chevet of St. Benoit-sur-Loire, south porch of Anzy-le-Ducnave and chevet of
                                                                                                      Montmajour, nave of Tournus abbey, doorway of St. Sernin cathedral, Toulouse,
                                                                                                      Vignory cathedral,  chevet of Saint Austremoine, Issoire, chevet of Notres Dame du Port,
                                                                                                      Clermont-Ferrand,  chevet of Saint Hilaire church, Semur-en-Brionnais, chevet of
                                                                                                      Fontevraud Abbey, doorway of Cathedral of Saint-Trophime, Arles, westwork of
                                                                                                      Sacre-Coeur, Paray-le-Monial, sculpture from the Cathedral of  Limoges, sculptural reliefs
                                                                                                      of the Abbey of Saint-Marie-de-la-Regle, Limoges, archways and pillar of the church at
                                                                                                      Lanleffpillars of St. Croix, Quimperle, archways and pillar of St. Sauveur, Dinan. cloister
                                                                                                      of Saint Saveur Cathedral, Aix-en-Provence. cloister of Senanque abbey.
                4.  Norman                              (1066-1140)                   corner capital (s) of Morienval, chevet, (****), ambulatory, facade, windowsclearstorey
                                                                                                      vault and towers of St. Foy,Conqueswindows (harmonic) of Eglise Saint Pierre d'Airvault,
                                                                                                      belltower of Cunault priory churchwindow of Charlieu Abbey, chevet of Saint
                                                                                                      Hilaire, Melle, exterior and windows of abbey churches of Thaon and Lessay, capitals
                                                                                                      1 2 3 4 5 6 from the Abbey of Saint Martial, Limoges.
                5.  Early Gothic                        (c1140-1195)                 Ambulatory of Saint Denis
                6.  Cistercian                            (c1180-1250)                 Nave and facade of Silvacane Abbey.                
                7.  Geometric (High Gothic)      (c1195-1240)                Clearstorey of Saint Denis, ambulatory, nave and clearstorey of Reims Cathedral
                                                                                                      clearstoreywest and north rose windows of Chartres Cathedral, apse and nave
                                                                                                      clearstoreys of  St. Peter and St. Paul, Troyes, nave of Notres Dame Cathedral.
                8.  Rayonnant                           (c1240-1350)                North rose window of Saint Denis, westsouth and north rose windows of Reims,
                                                                                                      rose window of Troyes, south and north rose windows of Notres-Dame, upper
                                                                                                      storey of Saint Chapelle
                9. Regional Gothic                    (c1240-1385)                 chapel of Papal Palace, Avignon 

Italy;        1. Byzantine                             (c400-1300)                   Mosaics from the basilicas of San Clemente (detail), Santa Maria Maggiore,
                                                                                                      nave and mosaics from Santa Maria in Cosmedin, facade and mosaics Santa Maria in Trastevere.
                2. Ottonian                              (909-1024)                     Octagon of Santa Maria Maggiore, Lomello.
                2. Romanesque                       (c1000-1200)                 Cathedral of Civita Castellana, churches of San Pietro, Tuscania, and San Vittoria,
                                                                                                     Monteleone Sabino, nave of San Antimo , Church of  Aregno, Corsica, facade (detail)
                                                                                                     and nave of the Cathedral of Anagni , Church of San Silvestro, Bevagna, Cathedral of
                                                                                                     Ferentino, clearstorey (detail) of San Benedetto, Subiaco, Cathedral of Frosinone, cupolas
                                                                                                     archways 1 2 and facade\of Santa Maria Maggiore, Lomello, (***).
                3. Cosmati                              (c1190-1300)                 Cloisters of  San Scholastica, Subiaco, San Giovanni in Laterano and San Paolo fuori Le Mura
                                                                                                     in Rome, pavements of San Lorenzo fuori Le MuraSanta Maria in Cosmedin,
                                                                                                     Santa Maria in Trastevere in Rome, and San Benedetto, Subiaco, ciborium of Santa
                                                                                                     Maria in Cosmedin, ciborium of basilica of  Castel Sant'Elia, cloister of Sasso Vivo, near
                                                                                                     Foligno, (a rare example in England is the pavement of Westminster abbey)
                4. Cistercian                            (c1180-1250)                Abbeys of San Galgano in Tuscany, and Fossanova cloisters, Casamari cloisters, Valvisciolo
                                                                                                     cloisters (detail) in Lazio, church of San Michele, Arcangelo, Bevagna.
                5. Response to English             (c1275-1300)               Cathedral of  Alatritomb in San Francesco, Viterbo.   
                6. Response to Geometric        (c1240-1280)               Arcade of  Palazzo dei Papi ,Viterbo.
                7. Norman                               (c1070-1200)               Pavement of  San Cataldo church, Pavement of Capella Palatina in Palazzo dei Normanni,
                                                                                                    apse and choir pavements of Monreale Cathedral, east cupola of the church of Santa Maria
                                                                                                    Maggiore, Lomello.
                8. Regional Gothic                   (c1250-1385)               Abbey of  Monte Oliveto, near Siena, church of  Sant Agostino, Visso, tower of Corciano,
                                                                                                    Upper church of San Francesco d'Assisi, Assisi, church of San Francesco, Viterbo,
                                                                                                    monastery of Farfa (tower).

Spain;      1. Visigoth                              (c660-930)                     Churches of San Juan de Banos, Banos de Cerrato, San Pedro de la Nave, Campillo, Zamora,
                                                                                                     Santiago de Penalba, San Cebrian de Mazote, Ponferrada, archway and pillar (s) of the church
                                                                                                     of El Salvador, Toledo, church of  Santa Maria del Naranco, Oviedo.
                2. Romanesque                       (c1075- 1150)               Nave of Santiago de Compostela Cathedralrose window and cupola of San Miguel de Breamo,
                                                                                                    Coruna, archway and windows of San Roman, Toledo, archway of Santiago de los Caballeros,
                                                                                                     Santa Lucia, San TomeSan Isidoro, windows 1 2 of San Esteban and Santa Maria La Nueva,
                                                                                                     facade of San Antolin, Zamora.
                3. Norman                              (c1085)                          windows (random) and pavement of the church (originally a synagogue) of Santa Maria la Blanca, (**),
                                                                                                     belltowers 1 2 3 4 5 6 of the churches of San Tome, San Sebastian, San Andres, San Pedro Martir,
                                                                                                     San Domingo el Antiguo, Santiago del Arrabal, Toledo, cupolas 1 2 3 4 5 of the churches of San
                                                                                                     Domingo el Antiguo, San Vincente, Santiago del Arrabal, and convents of Santa Ursula, San Isabel,
                                                                                                     Toledo, vault, arches of the mosque of Cristo de la Luz and archways of Puente de San Martin
                                                                                                     (Visigoth influence), Toledo, (**), cupola of Seu Argell cathedral, belltowers 1 2 3 4 5 6 of the
                                                                                                     churches of Santiago del Burgo, San Pedro y San Ildefonso, San Juan de Puerta Nueva, San Vincente,
                                                                                                     Santa Maria la Horta, San Cipriano, Zamora, cupolas1 (interior view) 2 3 4 5 of Santa Maria Magdalena,
                                                                                                     Santa Maria La Nueva, Santa Maria La Horta, Santiago Caballeros, San Claudio de Olivares,
                                                                                                     Zamora, archways 1 2 (random) of Santiago del Burgo, Zamora.
                4. Cistercian                            (c1180)                          Cloisters of  Santa Maria de Oia
                5.  Cusp                                  (c1280)                          Cloisters of the monastery of San Juan de Reyes
                6. Response to Geometric        (c1240-1280)                Nave of  Bilbao Cathedral


Germany;  1. Byzantine                            (c 800)                            Octagon of Aachen cathedral.
                 2. Carolingian                          (c800)                            Konigshalle of Lorsch abbey.
                 3. Pre-Romanesque                (c920-1024)                   Westworks of the abbey churches of   Gernrode and Hildesheim
                 4. Romanesque                       (c1025-1200)                Westworks of Worms and Speyer cathedrals, and abbey churhes of Fredesloh  and Maria Laach

Holland;    1. Romanesque                       (c1000-1050)                Westwork of the basilica of  San Servatius, Maastricht.

Israel;        1. Romanesque                       (c1075-1150)               Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
                 2. Cosmati                              (c1190-1300)                pavement of the Holy Sepulchre.

Turkey;     1. Byzantine                              (c400-1300)                 Monastery of  ChoraHagia Sophia, Constantinople.
Greece;     1. Byzantine                              (c400-1300)                 Monastery of Helandarion, belltower at Vatopedi monastery, pavement at Iveron monastery, Mount Athos.

Ireland;    1. Celtic                                    (c900-1000)                    High Cross of Monasterboice, High Cross at Ahenny.
                1. Norman                                (c1180)                           Abbey of Fore
                2. Cistercian                              (c1150)                          Abbey of Mellifont , Abbey of Boyle , Abbey of Hore
                3. Romanesque                         (c1200-1250)                 Church of Teampall Mor, Abbey of Cong , Abbey of Jerpoint , Nun's Church , Clonmacnoise.
                4.  Lancet                                 (1180-1240)                   Abbey of Timoleague
                5. Perpendicular                        (1400)                            Abbey of Quin
                6. Augustinian                           (c1450)                           Priory of St. Mary's

      *       It is the author's opinion, that the random fragments found in a number churches from  Devon and Cornwall derive from architectural motifs found in Spain, see (**),
               whereas the harmonic elements, originate in the French Norman/Romanesque style. Many of these architectural elements are used in later constructions, from
               different periods, but the initial geometrical idea remains.  

      **     The idea being that this form is a pointed version of the Visigothic horseshoe arch, developed in conjunction at San Martin.        
      ***   The presence of Lombard bands in both the facade and cupolas at Santa Maria Maggiore, Lomello, date the building (c1000-1050) to the Lombard or First
               Romanesque style. According to  "Lombard Architecture", by A.K.Porter, "The transverse arches of Lomello, therefore, may be accepted as the earliest
               known erected over a nave".
      **** The style, here, should be compared carefully, with the design of cupolas in Toledo, Zamora and Lomello.