Some Major Stylistic Periods of Medieval Art and Architecture



                                                                                       Churches, Abbeys, Cathedrals, Basilicas and Monasteries.


England, Wales, Scotland, Sweden, Denmark and Norway;           Please follow this link

England   1. Early Christian                       (c300-350)                    Mosaics of Chedworth Villa 1 2 (++)

               2. Anglo-Saxon                         (c450-1066)                   doorway and quoin of Odda's chapel , window and dragon form of St. Mary's, Deerhurst, font of St. Mary's,
                                                                                                      Frampton on Severn, sculpture in Saint Laurence, Bradford on Avon, belltower windows 1 2 of  St. Bartholomew's,
                                                                                                      Cadeleigh, belltowers 1 2 of St. Swithun's, Sandford and St. Mary's, Upton Hellions, window of  St.Matthews,
                                                                                                      Cheriton Fitzpaine, tower of St. Oswalds church, Highnam, tower of St. Michael's church, Oxford, tower
                                                                                                      (random) of St. Mary's church, Great Washbourne, cross and archway of St. Mary and All Saints church,
                                                                                                      Hawksworth, archway of All Saints church, Turkdean, fragments 1 2 of Winchcombe Abbey, quoin, spandrel
                                                                                                      and fragments 1 2 of St. Oswald's Priory, Gloucester.
               3. Celtic                                     (c500-1150)                  Font of St. Mary's, Deerhurst.
               4. Romanesque                          (c1066-1150)                Wall paintings of St. James' church, Stoke Orchard, exterior tympanum and corner capital,
                                                                                                      chancel arch, (corner capital and decoration), nave and wall painting of St. Mary's church, Kempley,
                                                                                                      doorway , column , stringcourse details 1 2 3 4 5 and dragon form of Kilpeck church (+), doorway of
                                                                                                      Saint James, Jacobstowe, columns 1 2 of St. Swithun's, Sandford and St. Mary's, Upton Hellions,
                                                                                                      windows of Glastonbury Abbey, archways1 2 of St. Mary and Holy Trinity church, Buckland Filleigh,
                                                                                                      font carvings 1 2 of  St. Mary the Virgin church, Frampton-on-Severn, sculpture at St. Mary's church,
                                                                                                      Temple Guiting, fragment of St. Oswald's Priory, Gloucester, archway, corner capital, tympanum and
                                                                                                       lancet window of the church of St. Mary the Virgin, Dymock, (********).
               5. Norman                                 (1066-1180)                  corner capital (s)of Buckfast Abbey, windows of St. Andrew's church, Bere Ferrers, 1 
                                                                                                      (interior view) (linear), 4 (interior view) (detail)(random) (*), window of Kilkhampton church,
                                                                                                       window of St. Martin and Mary's, Chudleigh, windows of St.Petroc's church, Lydford  1 (harmonic),
                                                                                                      2 (random), 3 (harmonic, random), windows of St. Mary's, Huxham 1 (harmonic)  2 (random),
                                                                                                      window (harmonic) of St.Mary's, Exbourne, arch scroll of  St. James, Jacobstowe, windows
                                                                                                      (interior view) (harmonic) of  Winchester Cathedral, windows of Tewkesbury Abbey, window
                                                                                                      (random) of St. John the Baptist church, Netherexe, belltower (detail) (harmonic) of Exeter Cathedral,
                                                                                                      windows of St. Peter the Poor Fisherman, Revelstoke, 1 (interior view)2 (interior view)
                                                                                                      (harmonic),  window (random) of St. Disen's church, Bradninch, gargoyle, pillar (random) and stones of
                                                                                                      St. Euny's church, Redruth, windows 1 (harmonic) 2 (random) of , King Charles the Martyr's church,
                                                                                                      Falmouth, font details 1 2 of St. Margaret's church, Topsham, Exeter, tower of St. Nicholas of Myra's
                                                                                                      church, Ozleworth, capitals 1 2 3 of St. Mary the Virgin church, Iffley, archway of All Saints church,
                                                                                                      Turkdean, archway of St. John the Baptist church, Ruardean, (+++), archway of St. Oswald's Priory,
                                                                                                      Gloucester, archway of St. Mary de Crypt, Gloucester, volute capitals 1 2 of Gloucester Cathedral crypt,
                                                                                                      (*******). 
               6. Response to Geometric          (1240-1280)                 Shields at St. Andrew's church, Cullompton and Thomas A Becket's church, Sourton, Devon.
               7. Curvilinear. (Decorated)         (c1275-1380)               Chapterhouse of Southwell Minsterwest window of York Cathedral ,windows of St. Mary's Cheltenham;
                                                                                                      1 2 3 4 5 6 7vault of Ottery, St. Mary's, Devon, cloister windows 1 2 3 4 5 6, and  rose window of
                                                                                                      Exeter Cathedral.
 
France;    1.  Carolingian                          (c768-840)                     Oratory of Germigny-des-Pres.
                2.  Celtic                                  (c1125-50)                     Clearstorey fragments of the Abbey of Saint-Marie-de-la-Regle, Limoges.
                3.  Romanesque                       (c1000-1200)                 Chevet of St. Benoit-sur-Loire, south porch of Anzy-le-Ducnave and chevet of
                                                                                                      Montmajour, nave of Tournus abbey, doorway of St. Sernin cathedral, Toulouse,
                                                                                                      Vignory cathedral,  chevet of Saint Austremoine, Issoire, chevet of Notres Dame du Port,
                                                                                                      Clermont-Ferrand,  chevet of Saint Hilaire church, Semur-en-Brionnais, chevet of
                                                                                                      Fontevraud Abbey, doorway of Cathedral of Saint-Trophime, Arles, westwork of
                                                                                                      Sacre-Coeur, Paray-le-Monial, sculpture from the Cathedral of  Limoges, sculptural reliefs
                                                                                                      of the Abbey of Saint-Marie-de-la-Regle, Limoges, archways and pillar of the church at
                                                                                                      Lanleffpillars of St. Croix, Quimperle, archways and pillar of St. Sauveur, Dinan. cloister
                                                                                                      of Saint Saveur Cathedral, Aix-en-Provence. cloister of Senanque abbey.
                4.  Norman                              (1066-1140)                   corner capital (s) of Morienval, chevet, ambulatory, facade, windowsclearstorey
                                                                                                      vault and towers of St. Foy,Conques, (****), windows (harmonic) of Eglise Saint Pierre d'Airvault,
                                                                                                      belltower of Cunault priory churchwindow of Charlieu Abbey, chevet of Saint
                                                                                                      Hilaire, Melle, exterior and windows of abbey churches of Thaon and Lessay, capitals
                                                                                                      1 2 3 4 5 6 from the Abbey of Saint Martial, Limoges.
                5.  Early Gothic                        (c1140-1195)                 Ambulatory of Saint Denis
                6.  Cistercian                            (c1180-1250)                 Nave and facade of Silvacane Abbey.                
                7.  Geometric (High Gothic)      (c1195-1240)                Clearstorey of Saint Denis, ambulatory, nave and clearstorey of Reims Cathedral
                                                                                                      clearstoreywest and north rose windows of Chartres Cathedral, apse and nave
                                                                                                      clearstoreys of  St. Peter and St. Paul, Troyes, nave of Notres Dame Cathedral.
                8.  Rayonnant                           (c1240-1350)                North rose window of Saint Denis, westsouth and north rose windows of Reims,
                                                                                                      rose window of Troyes, south and north rose windows of Notres-Dame, upper
                                                                                                      storey of Saint Chapelle
                9. Regional Gothic                    (c1240-1385)                 chapel of Papal Palace, Avignon 


Italy;        1. Byzantine                              (c400-1300)                  Mosaics from the basilicas of San Clemente (detail), Santa Maria Maggiore,
                                                                                                      nave and mosaics from Santa Maria in Cosmedin, facade and mosaics Santa Maria in Trastevere,
                                                                                                      pillars (detail) of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Rome.
                2. Ottonian                               (909-1024)                    Octagon of Santa Maria Maggiore, Lomello.
                3. Anglo-Romanesque              (c1050-1137)                archways 1 2, pillars 1 2 and trefoil window, interior views 1 2, of  Santa Maria Maggiore church,
                                                                                                     Alatri, (*****).                 
                4. First Romanesque                (c900-1030)                  Lombard bands 1 2, nave (north side), archway and chancel arch, rose window, detaildragon form and
                                                                                                     interior view, of  San Pietro, Tuscania,  cupola, transept, nave archway, facade and transverse arches 1 2
                                                                                                     of Santa Maria Maggiore, Lomello, pulpit, facadebelltower and pillars 1 2 of the Basilica of Saint Ambrogio,
                                                                                                     Milan, facade and columns of San Martino, Tarquinia, facade and pillar of San Michele Maggiore, Pavia, (***).
                5. Second Romanesque         (c1030-1200)                  Cathedral of Civita Castellana and San Vittoria, Monteleone Sabino, nave of San Antimo , Church of  Aregno,
                                                                                                     Corsica, facade (detail) and nave of the Cathedral of Anagni , Church of San Silvestro, Bevagna, Cathedral of
                                                                                                     Ferentino, clearstorey (detail) of San Benedetto, Subiaco, Cathedral of Frosinone, fragments at Santa Maria in
                                                                                                     Trastevere, Rome.
                6. Cosmati                             (c1190-1300)                  Cloisters of  San Scholastica, Subiaco, San Giovanni in Laterano and San Paolo fuori Le Mura
                                                                                                     in Rome, pavements of San Lorenzo fuori Le MuraSanta Maria in Cosmedin,
                                                                                                     Santa Maria in Trastevere in Rome, and San Benedetto, Subiaco, ciborium of Santa
                                                                                                     Maria in Cosmedin, ciborium of basilica of  Castel Sant'Elia, cloister of Sasso Vivo, near
                                                                                                     Foligno, (a rare example in England is the pavement of Westminster abbey), ciborium of Santa
                                                                                                     Maria in Cosmedin, Rome, pavement of San Cataldo church,  pavement (detail) of Palazzo
                                                                                                     Normanni and pavement details 1 2 3 4 of Monreale cathedral, Palermo.
                7. Cistercian                            (c1180-1250)                Abbeys of San Galgano in Tuscany, and Fossanova cloisters, Casamari cloisters, Valvisciolo
                                                                                                     cloisters (detail) in Lazio, church of San Michele, Arcangelo, Bevagna.
                8. Response to English             (c1275-1300)                tomb in San Francesco, Viterbo.   
                9. Response to Geometric        (c1240-1280)               Arcade of  Palazzo dei Papi ,Viterbo.
                10. Norman                             (c1070-1200)               Arches 1 2 of San Cataldo church, archway of Palazzo Normanni, archcloister, apse and choir pavements
                                                                                                    of Monreale Cathedral, Palermo, arches 1 2 and lancet window of Cefalu cathedral, Sicily, cupola and
                                                                                                    belltower of Sant Pancrazio, Tarquinia.
                11. Regional Gothic                  (c1250-1385)              Abbey of  Monte Oliveto, near Siena, church of  Sant Agostino, Visso, tower of Corciano,
                                                                                                    Upper church of San Francesco d'Assisi, Assisi, church of San Francesco, Viterbo,
                                                                                                    monastery of Farfa (tower), facade of San Francesco, Tarquinia, facade of Messina Cathedral..
                                                                                                     

Spain;      1. Visigoth                                 (c660-930)                  Churches of San Juan de Banos, Banos de Cerrato, San Pedro de la Nave, Campillo, Zamora,
                                                                                                     Santiago de Penalba, San Cebrian de Mazote, Ponferrada, archway and pillar (s) of the church
                                                                                                     of El Salvador, Toledo, church of  Santa Maria del Naranco, Oviedo.
                2. Romanesque                         (c1075- 1150)               Nave of Santiago de Compostela Cathedralrose window and cupola of San Miguel de Breamo,
                                                                                                     Coruna, archway and windows of San Roman, Toledo, archway of Santiago de los Caballeros,
                                                                                                     Santa Lucia, San TomeSan Isidoro, windows 1 2 of San Esteban and Santa Maria La Nueva,
                                                                                                     facade of San Antolin, Zamora.
                3. Norman                                (c1085)                          windows (random) and pavement of the church (originally a synagogue) of Santa Maria la Blanca, (**),
                                                                                                     belltowers 1 2 3 4 5 6 of the churches of San Tome, San Sebastian, San Andres, San Pedro Martir,
                                                                                                     San Domingo el Antiguo, Santiago del Arrabal, Toledo, cupolas 1 2 3 4 5 of the churches of San
                                                                                                     Domingo el Antiguo, San Vincente, Santiago del Arrabal, and convents of Santa Ursula, San Isabel,
                                                                                                     Toledo, vault, arches of the mosque of Cristo de la Luz and archways of Puente de San Martin
                                                                                                     (Visigoth influence), Toledo, (**), cupola of Seu Argell cathedral, belltowers 1 2 3 4 5 6 of the
                                                                                                     churches of Santiago del Burgo, San Pedro y San Ildefonso, San Juan de Puerta Nueva, San Vincente,
                                                                                                     Santa Maria la Horta, San Cipriano, Zamora, cupolas1 (interior view) 2 3 4 5 of Santa Maria Magdalena,
                                                                                                     Santa Maria La Nueva, Santa Maria La Horta, Santiago Caballeros, San Claudio de Olivares,
                                                                                                     Zamora, archways 1 2 (random) of Santiago del Burgo, Zamora, (******)..
                4. Cistercian                            (c1180)                          Cloisters of  Santa Maria de Oia
                5.  Cusp                                  (c1280)                          Cloisters of the monastery of San Juan de Reyes
                6. Response to Geometric        (c1240-1280)                Nave of  Bilbao Cathedral

               

Germany;  1. Anglo-Saxon                       (c765)                             Lorsch Abbey.
                 2. Byzantine                            (c 800)                            Octagon of Aachen cathedral.
                 3. Carolingian                          (c800)                            Konigshalle of Lorsch abbey.
                 4. Pre-Romanesque                (c920-1024)                   Westworks of the abbey churches of   Gernrode and Hildesheim
                    (Ottonian)
                 5. Romanesque                       (c1025-1200)                Westworks of Worms and Speyer cathedrals, and abbey churhes of Fredesloh  and Maria Laach

Holland;    1. Romanesque                       (c1000-1050)                Westwork of the basilica of  San Servatius, Maastricht.

Israel;        1. Romanesque                       (c1075-1150)               Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
                 2. Cosmati                              (c1190-1300)                pavement of the Holy Sepulchre.

Turkey;     1. Byzantine                              (c400-1300)                 Monastery of  ChoraHagia Sophia, Constantinople.
Greece;     1. Byzantine                              (c400-1300)                 Monastery of Helandarion, belltower at Vatopedi monastery, pavement at Iveron monastery, Mount Athos.

Ireland;    1. Celtic                                    (c900-1000)                    High Cross of Monasterboice, High Cross at Ahenny.
                1. Norman                                (c1180)                           Abbey of Fore
                2. Cistercian                              (c1150)                          Abbey of Mellifont , Abbey of Boyle , Abbey of Hore
                3. Romanesque                         (c1200-1250)                 Church of Teampall Mor, Abbey of Cong , Abbey of Jerpoint , Nun's Church , Clonmacnoise.
                4.  Lancet                                 (1180-1240)                   Abbey of Timoleague
                5. Perpendicular                        (1400)                            Abbey of Quin
                6. Augustinian                           (c1450)                           Priory of St. Mary's

     (+)         The Y-shape of the tree in the tympanum of the doorway, echoed by the V-shape of the apex angel, also the braiding pattern of the stringcourse element 5 suggest
                   an Anglo-Saxon influence, the presence of Lombard bands in the interior column and the dragon form are characteristic of the First Romanesque style, although
                   Zarnecki argues that they be derived from Scandinavean influences. In "Later English Romanesque Sculpture", he also identifies the abaci as Anglo-Norman, possibly
                   due to the use of diagonals and the beak head ornamentation, as characteristic of the later English Romanesque period, 1140-1210, see also (******) here.  The
                   arms of the Y point to one of the fishes of the Zodiac and the head of a dragon, features of the corbels in the centre of the north and west side walls. The symbol of
                   the lamb and cross appear at the centre of the east and west walls, the cross appearing at St. Mary's church, Temple Guiting.. Zarnecki identifies the style as part of
                   the Herefordshire school of sculpture.   

    (++)        The Christian influence may be due to a chi-rho symbol found engraved on the Nymphaeum, predating the villa's mosaics.

    (+++)      Also a feature of the Herefordshire school.
                
     *             It is the author's opinion, that the random fragments found in a number churches from  Devon and Cornwall derive from architectural motifs found in Spain, see (**),
                    whereas the harmonic elements, originate in the French Norman/Romanesque style. Many of these architectural elements are used in later constructions, from
                    different periods, but the initial geometrical idea remains.  

      **          The idea being that this form is a pointed version of the Visigothic horseshoe arch, developed in conjunction at San Martin.        
      
      ***        The presence of Lombard bands in both the facade and cupolas at Santa Maria Maggiore, Lomello, date the building (c1000-1050) to the Lombard or First
                     Romanesque style. According to  "Lombard Architecture", by A.K.Porter, "The transverse arches of Lomello, therefore, may be accepted as the earliest
                     known erected over a nave". Lombard bands can also be found on the belltower of the Basilica of San Ambrogio, Milan, and at San Pietro in Tuscania. There
                     is a similarity between the design of the south transept at Lomello and the facade of San Michele Maggiore, Pavia. The use of ionic and corinthian orders in the
                     nave capitals at San Pietro, and of doric orders in the nave capitals at San Ambrogio, Milan, and San Martino, Tarquinia, confirm the view that the First
                     Romanesque was influenced by Greek architecture. Circular arches are of course adopted from the Roman triumphal design, but the height in the nave, as at
                     Lomello, seem to be a Lombard innovation, developed later by the Normans, as at St. Foy, Conques. Semi circular motifs, together with dragon forms, can
                     also be found in the rose window at San Pietro, it is possible there is a Norman as well as Lombard influence here.  

      ****       The style, here, should be compared carefully, with the design of cupolas in Toledo, Zamora and Lomello.  There is less of an emphasis on asymmetry, in favour of a
                      harmonious pattern. The use of circular arches in combination with a high vault, as at Lomello, is rare, and  it is an interesting architectural question as to how the vault
                      was supported.

      *****      George Zarnecki takes the view that Anglo-Saxon traditions continued in the English Romanesque style, from 1050 into the 12th century, with little influence from the
                      Norman conquest. The church at Alatri can be dated back to 1137, and shows some aesthetic similarities with Anglo-Saxon churches in England, for example the
                      narrow circular arches and pillars in the aisles, similar to those found at Odda's chapel, Gloucestershire, and All Saints church, Turkdean. The use of the trefoil, introduced
                      at Winchester cathedral arouund 1180, with its emphasis on a triangular geometry, could also be related to the Anglo-Saxon use of dogtooth in windows and archways, and
                      the inclusion of spandrels in architecture. A fragment from St. Oswald's Priory, dating from the Anglo-Saxon period, in the Gloucester Museum, shows similarities with a
                      braiding pattern found at Anagni. Lloyd and Jennifer Laing  in "Celtic Britain and Ireland" suggest that the interlace design has an Anglo-Saxon origin, similar  to work found
                      at the Sutton Hoo 2 burial site. 

      ******    The use of an asymmetrical cupola dates possibly back to the Lombard church at Lomello, the Norman presence in Italy from 999, and in Spain, from 1085, suggests that
                      they developed the idea in Spain later. 

      *******  According to "English Romanesque Sculpture, 1066-1140", by George Zarnecki, such capitals (1089) are derived from the Corinthian design, and influenced by architecture
                      in Normandy, France, citing Bernay Abbey (early 11th century) as a predecessor.

     ******** The geometrical motifs at St. Mary the Virgin, Dymock, and St. Mary's, Kempley, are clearly related, with the spiral patterns asymmetrical and at opposite sides in the two
                      churches. The spiral designs occurs symmetrically in the chancel arch at Kempley, a feature of the Romanesque style in Italy, with the chancel arch decoration doubling the
                      frequency of the crests in the wall painting, above a semicircle, from red and grey to yellow. The corner capital style confirms the development as Norman, see also (***)
                      of this page and (****), (*****) here.