Some Major Stylistic Periods of Medieval Art and Architecture



                                                                                       Churches, Abbeys, Cathedrals, Basilicas and Monasteries.


England, Wales, Scotland, Sweden, Denmark and Norway;           Please follow this link

England   1. Early Christian                       (c300-350)                    Mosaics of Chedworth Villa 1 2 (++)

               2. Anglo-Saxon                         (c450-1066)                   doorway and quoin of Odda's chapel , window and dragon form of St. Mary's, Deerhurst, font of St. Mary's,
                                                                                                      Frampton on Severn, sculpture in Saint Laurence, Bradford on Avon, belltower windows 1 2 of  St. Bartholomew's,
                                                                                                      Cadeleigh, belltowers 1 2 of St. Swithun's, Sandford and St. Mary's, Upton Hellions, window of  St.Matthews,
                                                                                                      Cheriton Fitzpaine, tower of St. Oswalds church, Highnam, tower of St. Michael's church, Oxford, tower
                                                                                                      (random) of St. Mary's church, Great Washbourne, cross and archway of St. Mary and All Saints church,
                                                                                                      Hawksworth, archway of All Saints church, Turkdean, fragments 1 2 of Winchcombe Abbey, quoin, spandrel
                                                                                                      and fragments 1 2 of St. Oswald's Priory, Gloucester, dragonform of Malmesbury Abbey, (++++),
                                                                                                      interior and exterior of doorway, at St. Winwalo's church, Tremaine, chancel carving , tomb slab and window
                                                                                                      of St. Mary's church, Bibury, window, doorway and herringbone pattern at St. Andrew and Bartholomew
                                                                                                      church, Ashleworth, sundial of St. Nicholas's church, Saintbury, sundial, lintel and sculptures 1 2 of Holy Rood
                                                                                                      church, Daglingworth, crucifix of St. Katherine's church, Wormington, doorway(s), birdforms and
                                                                                                      sundial detail  of St. Andrew's church, Castle Frome, sundials of St. Giles church, Bredon, (##), window of
                                                                                                      Holy Mary church, Ampney Crucis
, font, jambs arch and saddleback tower of St. Peter's church, Ampney,
                                                                                                      splay window of St. Mary's church, Barnsley, (####).
               3. Celtic                                     (c500-1150)                  Font of St. Mary's, Deerhurst.
               4. Carolingian                             (c700-900)                   Capitals 1 2 of St. Mary's church, Bibury, (###).
               5. Romanesque                          (c1066-1170)                Wall paintings (detail) of St. James' church, Stoke Orchard, exterior tympanum and corner capital,
                                                                                                      chancel arch, (corner capital and decoration), nave and wall painting of St. Mary's church, Kempley,
                                                                                                      doorway , column , stringcourse details 1 2 3 4 5 and dragon form of Kilpeck church (+), doorway of
                                                                                                      Saint James, Jacobstowe, columns 1 2 of St. Swithun's, Sandford and St. Mary's, Upton Hellions,
                                                                                                      windows of Glastonbury Abbey, archways1 2 of St. Mary and Holy Trinity church, Buckland Filleigh,
                                                                                                      font carvings 1 2 of  St. Mary the Virgin church, Frampton-on-Severn, sculpture at St. Mary's church,
                                                                                                      Temple Guiting, fragment of St. Oswald's Priory, Gloucester, archway, corner capital, tympanum and
                                                                                                       lancet window of the church of St. Mary the Virgin, Dymock, (********), tympanun (detail), voussoirs
                                                                                                      and dragonform of  St. George's church, Brisop, (*********),west door, archway, alternating and
                                                                                                      continuous orders of Malmesbury Abbey,  (**********), tympanum of St. Gregory's church, Treneglos, 
                                                                                                      (***********), tympanum (detail) of St. Peter's church, Handborough, doorway with beakhead
                                                                                                      ornament, capitals 1 2 of Romsey Abbey, (#).
               6. Norman                                 (1066-1180)                  corner capital (s)of Buckfast Abbey, windows of St. Andrew's church, Bere Ferrers, 1 
                                                                                                      (interior view) (linear), 4 (interior view) (detail)(random) (*), window of Kilkhampton church,
                                                                                                       window of St. Martin and Mary's, Chudleigh, windows of St.Petroc's church, Lydford  1 (harmonic),
                                                                                                      2 (random), 3 (harmonic, random), windows of St. Mary's, Huxham 1 (harmonic)  2 (random),
                                                                                                      window (harmonic) of St.Mary's, Exbourne, arch scroll of  St. James, Jacobstowe, windows
                                                                                                      (interior view) (harmonic) of  Winchester Cathedral, windows of Tewkesbury Abbey, window
                                                                                                      (random) of St. John the Baptist church, Netherexe, belltower (detail) (harmonic) of Exeter Cathedral,
                                                                                                      windows of St. Peter the Poor Fisherman, Revelstoke, 1 (interior view)2 (interior view)
                                                                                                      (harmonic),  window (random) of St. Disen's church, Bradninch, gargoyle, pillar (random) and stones of
                                                                                                      St. Euny's church, Redruth, windows 1 (harmonic) 2 (random) of , King Charles the Martyr's church,
                                                                                                      Falmouth, font details 1 2 of St. Margaret's church, Topsham, Exeter, tower of St. Nicholas of Myra's
                                                                                                      church, Ozleworth, capitals 1 2 3 of St. Mary the Virgin church, Iffley, archway of All Saints church,
                                                                                                      Turkdean, archway of St. John the Baptist church, Ruardean, (+++), archway of St. Oswald's Priory,
                                                                                                      Gloucester, archway of St. Mary de Crypt, Gloucester, volute capitals 1 2 of Gloucester Cathedral crypt,
                                                                                                      (*******), nave arcades, dragonform and dragonforms of Malmesbury Abbey, beakhead ornamentation,
                                                                                                      arch boss and dragonforms capital of Old Sarum church, (+++++), doorway, pillar and serpentform
                                                                                                      tympanum of St. Corentine's church, Cury, (++++++), interior tympanum and doorway with dragonform
                                                                                                      tympanum of St. Petrock and St. Keri's church, Egloskerry, (+++++++), tympanum and volute capital of
                                                                                                      St. Nicholas's church, Saintbury, doorway and dragonform(s) of St. Cassian church, Chaddesley Corbett,
                                                                                                      doorway and volute capital of  St. Eadburgha's church, Ebrington, (++++++++), font of Holy Mary church,
                                                                                                      Ampney Crucis, font of the Ivy church, Ampney St. Mary, egg moulding of St. Mary's church, Barnsley,
                                                                                                      doorway, capitals, and dragon form detail of St. John the Baptist church, Coln St. Aldwyn's, doorway,
                                                                                                      orders with diamond arch detail, sunform, capital and  green man detail of St. Swithun's church, Quenington,
                                                                                                     (+++++++++), jambs, cushion capital , orders and archform at St. Nicholas church, Idbury, (++++++++++).
               7. Response to Geometric          (1240-1280)                 Shields at St. Andrew's church, Cullompton and Thomas A Becket's church, Sourton, Devon, pillar of
                                                                                                      Holy Mary church, Ampney Crucis, (&).
               8. Curvilinear. (Decorated)         (c1275-1380)               Chapterhouse of Southwell Minsterwest window of York Cathedral ,windows of St. Mary's Cheltenham;
                                                                                                      1 2 3 4 5 6 7vault of Ottery, St. Mary's, Devon, cloister windows 1 2 3 4 5 6, and  rose window of
                                                                                                      Exeter Cathedral.
 
France;    1.  Carolingian                          (c768-840)                     Oratory , apse (detail) and exterior windows of Germigny-des-Pres, (!!).
                2.  Celtic                                  (c1125-50)                     Clearstorey fragments of the Abbey of Saint-Marie-de-la-Regle, Limoges.
                3.  Romanesque                       (c1000-1200)                 Chevet of St. Benoit-sur-Loire, south porch of Anzy-le-Ducnave and chevet of
                                                                                                      Montmajour, nave of Tournus abbey, doorway of St. Sernin cathedral, Toulouse,
                                                                                                      Vignory cathedral,  chevet of Saint Austremoine, Issoire, chevet of Notres Dame du Port,
                                                                                                      Clermont-Ferrand,  chevet of Saint Hilaire church, Semur-en-Brionnais, chevet of
                                                                                                      Fontevraud Abbey, doorway of Cathedral of Saint-Trophime, Arles, westwork of
                                                                                                      Sacre-Coeur, Paray-le-Monial, sculpture from the Cathedral of  Limoges, sculptural reliefs
                                                                                                      of the Abbey of Saint-Marie-de-la-Regle, Limoges, archways and pillar of the church at
                                                                                                      Lanleffpillars of St. Croix, Quimperle, archways and pillar of St. Sauveur, Dinan. cloister
                                                                                                      of Saint Saveur Cathedral, Aix-en-Provence. cloister of Senanque abbey, capital of Saint
                                                                                                      Benigne church, Dijon, lunette of Abbey Sant Marie, Arles-sur-Tech, reliefs of Saint Sernin
                                                                                                      Cathedral, Toulouse, capital of  Cluny Abbey, Burgundy, (!!!!).
                4.  Norman                              (1066-1140)                   corner capital (s) of Morienval, chevet, ambulatory, facade, windowsclearstorey
                                                                                                      vault and towers of St. Foy,Conques, volute capitals 1 2 of Bernay Abbey,
                                                                                                      Normandy, volute capital of Bayeux Cathedral crypt (****), windows (harmonic) of
                                                                                                      Eglise Saint Pierre d'Airvault, belltower of Cunault priory churchwindow of Charlieu
                                                                                                      Abbey, chevet of Saint Hilaire, Melle, exterior and windows of abbey churches of Thaon
                                                                                                      and Lessay, capitals 1 2 3 4 5 6 from the Abbey of Saint Martial, Limoges.
                5.  Early Gothic                        (c1140-1195)                 Ambulatory of Saint Denis   
                6.  Cistercian                            (c1180-1250)                 Nave and facade of Silvacane Abbey.                
                7.  Geometric (High Gothic)      (c1195-1240)                Clearstorey of Saint Denis, ambulatory, nave and clearstorey of Reims Cathedral
                                                                                                      clearstoreywest and north rose windows of Chartres Cathedral, apse and nave
                                                                                                      clearstoreys of  St. Peter and St. Paul, Troyes, nave of Notres Dame Cathedral.
                8.  Rayonnant                           (c1240-1350)                North rose window of Saint Denis, westsouth and north rose windows of Reims,
                                                                                                      rose window of Troyes, south and north rose windows of Notres-Dame, upper
                                                                                                      storey of Saint Chapelle
                9. Regional Gothic                    (c1240-1385)                 chapel of Papal Palace, Avignon 


Italy;        1. Byzantine                              (c400-1300)                  Mosaics from the basilicas of San Clemente (detail), Santa Maria Maggiore,
                                                                                                      nave and mosaics from Santa Maria in Cosmedin, facade and mosaics Santa Maria in Trastevere,
                                                                                                      pillars (detail) of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Rome.
                2. Ottonian                               (909-1024)                    Octagon of Santa Maria Maggiore, Lomello.
                3. Anglo-Romanesque              (c1050-1137, 1159)      archways 1 2, pillars 1 2 and trefoil window, interior views 1 2, of  Santa Maria Maggiore church, Alatri,
                                                                                                      ciborium of Santa Maria in Valle, Porclaneta, pulpit of Abbazia de Santa Maria del Lago, Moscufo, (*****)..                 
                4. First Romanesque                (c900-1030)                  Lombard bands 1 2, nave (north side), archway and chancel arch, rose window, detaildragon form and
                                                                                                     interior view, of  San Pietro, Tuscania,  cupola, transept, nave archway, facade and transverse arches 1 2
                                                                                                     of Santa Maria Maggiore, Lomello, pulpit, facadebelltower and pillars 1 2 of the Basilica of Saint Ambrogio,
                                                                                                     Milan, facade and columns of San Martino, Tarquinia, facade and pillar of San Michele Maggiore, Pavia, (***).
                5. Second Romanesque         (c1030-1200)                  Cathedral of Civita Castellana and San Vittoria, Monteleone Sabino, nave and south portal (dragonform detail)
                                                                                                     of San Antimo (~) ,  Church of  Aregno, Corsica, facade (detail) and nave of the Cathedral of Anagni , Church of
                                                                                                     San Silvestro, Bevagna, Cathedral of Ferentino, clearstorey (detail) of San Benedetto, Subiaco, Cathedral of
                                                                                                     Frosinone, fragments at Santa Maria in Trastevere, Rome, ambo of Sant Ambrogio, Milan, frieze of Modena
                                                                                                     Cathedral, (!!!!!), dragonform detail of the pulpit in Abbazia de Santa Maria del Lago, Moscufo, archforms at
                                                                                                    the Abbazia di San Clemente a Casauria, archforms at the Duomo di Sessa Aurunca  (~ ~).
                6. Cosmati                             (c1190-1300)                  Cloisters of  San Scholastica, Subiaco, San Giovanni in Laterano and San Paolo fuori Le Mura
                                                                                                     in Rome, pavements of San Lorenzo fuori Le MuraSanta Maria in Cosmedin,
                                                                                                     Santa Maria in Trastevere in Rome, and San Benedetto, Subiaco, ciborium of Santa
                                                                                                     Maria in Cosmedin, ciborium of basilica of  Castel Sant'Elia, cloister of Sasso Vivo, near
                                                                                                     Foligno, (a rare example in England is the pavement of Westminster abbey), ciborium of Santa
                                                                                                     Maria in Cosmedin, Rome, pavement of San Cataldo church,  pavement (detail) of Palazzo
                                                                                                     Normanni and pavement details 1 2 3 4 of Monreale cathedral, Palermo.
                7. Cistercian                            (c1180-1250)                Abbeys of San Galgano in Tuscany, and Fossanova cloisters, Casamari cloisters, Valvisciolo
                                                                                                     cloisters (detail) in Lazio, church of San Michele, Arcangelo, Bevagna.
                8. Response to English             (c1275-1300)                tomb in San Francesco, Viterbo.   
                9. Response to Geometric        (c1240-1280)               Arcade of  Palazzo dei Papi ,Viterbo.
                10. Norman                             (c1070-1200)               Arches 1 2 of San Cataldo church, archway of Palazzo Normanni, archcloister, apse and choir pavements
                                                                                                    of Monreale Cathedral, Palermo, arches 1 2 and lancet window of Cefalu cathedral, Sicily, cupola and
                                                                                                    belltower of Sant Pancrazio, Tarquinia (!).
                11. Regional Gothic                  (c1250-1385)              Abbey of  Monte Oliveto, near Siena, church of  Sant Agostino, Visso, tower of Corciano,
                                                                                                    Upper church of San Francesco d'Assisi, Assisi, church of San Francesco, Viterbo,
                                                                                                    monastery of Farfa (tower), facade of San Francesco, Tarquinia, facade of Messina Cathedral..
                                                                                                     

Spain;      1. Visigoth                                 (c660-930)                  Churches of San Juan de Banos, Banos de Cerrato, San Pedro de la Nave, Campillo, Zamora,
                                                                                                     Santiago de Penalba, San Cebrian de Mazote, Ponferrada, archway and pillar (s) of the church
                                                                                                     of El Salvador, Toledo, church of  Santa Maria del Naranco, Oviedo.
                2. Romanesque                         (c1075- 1150)               Nave of Santiago de Compostela Cathedralrose window and cupola of San Miguel de Breamo,
                                                                                                     Coruna, archway and windows of San Roman, Toledo, archway of Santiago de los Caballeros,
                                                                                                     Santa Lucia, San TomeSan Isidoro, windows 1 2 of San Esteban and Santa Maria La Nueva,
                                                                                                     facade of San Antolin, Zamora.
                3. Norman                                (c1085)                        windows (random) and pavement of the church (originally a synagogue) of Santa Maria la Blanca, (**),
                                                                                                     belltowers 1 2 3 4 5 6 of the churches of San Tome, San Sebastian, San Andres, San Pedro Martir,
                                                                                                     San Domingo el Antiguo, Santiago del Arrabal, Toledo, cupolas 1 2 3 4 5 of the churches of San
                                                                                                     Domingo el Antiguo, San Vincente, Santiago del Arrabal, and convents of Santa Ursula, San Isabel,
                                                                                                     Toledo, vault, arches of the mosque of Cristo de la Luz and archways of Puente de San Martin
                                                                                                     (Visigoth influence), Toledo, (**), cupola of Seu Argell cathedral, belltowers 1 2 3 4 5 6 of the
                                                                                                     churches of Santiago del Burgo, San Pedro y San Ildefonso, San Juan de Puerta Nueva, San Vincente,
                                                                                                     Santa Maria la Horta, San Cipriano, Zamora, cupolas1 (interior view) 2 3 4 5 of Santa Maria Magdalena,
                                                                                                     Santa Maria La Nueva, Santa Maria La Horta, Santiago Caballeros, San Claudio de Olivares,
                                                                                                     Zamora, archways 1 2 (random) of Santiago del Burgo, Zamora, (******)..
                4. Cistercian                            (c1180)                          Cloisters of  Santa Maria de Oia
                5.  Cusp                                  (c1280)                          Cloisters of the monastery of San Juan de Reyes
                6. Response to Geometric        (c1240-1280)                Nave of  Bilbao Cathedral

               

Germany;  1. Anglo-Saxon                       (c765)                            Konigshalle of Lorsch Abbey.
                 2. Carolingian                          (c 800)                           Octagon of Aachen cathedral, (!!!!!!).
                 3. Pre-Romanesque                (c920-1024)                   Westworks of the abbey churches of   Gernrode and Hildesheim
                    (Ottonian)
                 4. Romanesque                       (c1025-1200)                Westworks of Worms and Speyer cathedrals, and abbey churhes of Fredesloh  and Maria Laach

Holland;    1. Romanesque                       (c1000-1050)                Westwork of the basilica of  San Servatius, Maastricht.

Israel;        1. Romanesque                       (c1075-1150)               Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
                 2. Cosmati                              (c1190-1300)                pavement of the Holy Sepulchre.

Turkey;     1. Byzantine                              (c400-1300)                 Monastery of  ChoraHagia Sophia, Constantinople.
Greece;     1. Byzantine                              (c400-1300)                 Monastery of Helandarion, belltower at Vatopedi monastery, pavement at Iveron monastery, Mount Athos.

Ireland;    1. Celtic                                    (c900-1000)                    High Cross of Monasterboice, High Cross at Ahenny.
                2. Anglo-Saxon                         (c800)                             doorway of church of Sons of Nessan.
                3. Anglo-Saxon/Carolingian       (c800)                             window of church of Sons of Nessan, (!!!).
                4. Norman                                (c1180)                           Abbey of Fore
                5. Cistercian                              (c1150)                          Abbey of Mellifont , Abbey of Boyle , Abbey of Hore
                6. Romanesque                         (c1200-1250)                 Church of Teampall Mor, Abbey of Cong , Abbey of Jerpoint , Nun's Church , Clonmacnoise.
                7.  Lancet                                 (1180-1240)                   Abbey of Timoleague
                8. Perpendicular                        (1400)                            Abbey of Quin
                9. Augustinian                           (c1450)                           Priory of St. Mary's

     (+)         The Y-shape of the tree in the tympanum of the doorway, echoed by the V-shape of the apex angel, also the braiding pattern of the stringcourse element suggest
                   an Anglo-Saxon influence, the presence of Lombard bands in the interior column and the dragon form are characteristic of the First Romanesque style, although
                   Zarnecki argues that they be derived from Scandinavean influences. In "Later English Romanesque Sculpture", he also identifies the abaci as Anglo-Norman, possibly
                   due to the use of diagonals and the beak head ornamentation, as characteristic of the later English Romanesque period, 1140-1210, see also (******) here.  The
                   arms of the Y point to one of the fishes of the Zodiac and the head of a dragon, features of the corbels in the centre of the north and west side walls. The symbol of
                   the lamb and cross appear at the centre of the east and west walls, the cross appearing at St. Mary's church, Temple Guiting.. Zarnecki identifies the style as part of
                   the Herefordshire school of sculpture.   

    (++)        The Christian influence may be due to a chi-rho symbol found engraved on the Nymphaeum, predating the villa's mosaics.

    (+++)      Also a feature of the Herefordshire school.

   (++++)     See also (+), (++) here.

   (+++++)    We can attribute the Norman influence, due to the lack of grooving in the dragon heads of the third and fourth archways, and the use of cushion capitals in the six
                     archways of the nave. Both the Anglo-Saxon and Norman designs, see (++++), appear at the junction of the second and third archways, creating a harmony with
                     the total number of arches on the north side. Zarnecki suggests that the designs were influenced by those at Old Sarum, a ruined castle in Wiltshire. The beakhead
                     ornament at Old Sarum church, now in the Salisbury museum, is clearly Norman due to the chevron moulding at the base, Zarnecki also mentions the figure at Old
                     Sarum appears at the apex of an arch, but the capital has moved from the museum.
 
  (++++++)   The embattled pattern on the pillar, similar to the frieze design of the central doorway at Lincoln Cathedral, created in about 1145, according to Zarnecki, confirms
                     the Norman influence. The chevron pattern, a development of the usual one, found for example at Tewkesbury Abbey, is identical to that at Mylor. The head at the
                     right of the five interlocked rings, is suggestive of a serpentine form, the circles may represent the main four islands of Scilly and Lundy.
 
(+++++++)   The vertical line of the interior tympanum follows the north-south direction of Lundy island, passing between England and Ireland, the diagonal cross connects
                     Egloskerry with Mylor and Byton, as mentioned in (********) here. The dragon form is associated with a circle, also a symbol of the Knights Templar, and
                     present at Tremaine, the form may be pointing towards Cury, see also (++++++).

(++++++++)  The volute capital and diagonal patterning of the tympanum at Saintbury, together with the cushion capitals and chevron design at St. Cassian are typically Norman,
                       see also (*******), the dragon forms on the font are of the same period, and, presumably, of Lombard influence, see also (~).  The volute capital again appears
                       at Ebrington, but the jamb on the doorway and the recessed arch at Ebrington confirm an Anglo-Saxon influence in this Anglo-Norman style. 

(+++++++++)  The font at Ampney Crucis with an octagonal base and the 8-point sunform at Quenington again confirm the use of an even number of points in Norman art, see
                        (***), and (*********) here. The green man symbol in the north door at Quenington and the grooved dragon head at Coln St. Aldwyns are Anglo-Norman, see
                        (++) and (/////) here. There are 3 orders in the extrados and intrados of the arch at Coln St. Aldwyn's and the south doorway at Quenington, with 2 orders in the
                        intrados and 3 orders in the extrados of the north doorway. They have exclusively chevron (3); egg/dart, beakhead, chevron (3); chevron, sunform (2) and
                        egg/dart, chevron, chevron (3) mouldings, with a diamond scroll and an embattled pattern over the green man.
(++++++++++)  The style is Anglo-Norman with recessing, jambs, a cushion capital and 3 orders; plain, chevron and diaper.
                                   
     *               It is the author's opinion, that the random fragments found in a number churches from  Devon and Cornwall derive from architectural motifs found in Spain, see (**),
                     whereas the harmonic elements, originate in the French Norman/Romanesque style. Many of these architectural elements are used in later constructions, from
                     different periods, but the initial geometrical idea remains.  

      **          The idea being that this form is a pointed version of the Visigothic horseshoe arch, developed in conjunction at San Martin.        
      
      ***        The presence of Lombard bands in both the facade and cupolas at Santa Maria Maggiore, Lomello, date the building (c1000-1050) to the Lombard or First
                     Romanesque style. According to  "Lombard Architecture", by A.K.Porter, "The transverse arches of Lomello, therefore, may be accepted as the earliest
                     known erected over a nave". Lombard bands can also be found on the belltower of the Basilica of San Ambrogio, Milan, and at San Pietro in Tuscania. There
                     is a similarity between the design of the south transept at Lomello and the facade of San Michele Maggiore, Pavia. The use of ionic and corinthian orders in the
                     nave capitals at San Pietro, and of doric orders in the nave capitals at San Ambrogio, Milan, and San Martino, Tarquinia, confirm the view that the First
                     Romanesque was influenced by Greek architecture. Circular arches are of course adopted from the Roman triumphal design, but the height in the nave, as at
                     Lomello, seem to be a Lombard innovation, developed later by the Normans, as at St. Foy, Conques. Semi circular and circular motifs, together with dragon
                     forms, and a numbering of 12,19 and 26, can also be found in the rose window at San Pietro, it is possible there is a Norman as well as Lombard influence here.  

      ****       The style, here, should be compared carefully, with the design of cupolas in Toledo, Zamora and Lomello.  There is less of an emphasis on asymmetry, in favour of a
                      harmonious pattern. The use of circular arches in combination with a high vault, as at Lomello, is rare, and  it is an interesting architectural question as to how the vault
                      was supported. The chevet is a Norman development of the Carolingian inventing of radiating chapels, see (!!). Zarnecki cites  Bayeux Cathedral and Bernay Abbey
                      as examples for the origin of volute capitals, which occur later at Gloucester Cathedral, see (*******).   

      *****      George Zarnecki takes the view that Anglo-Saxon traditions continued in the English Romanesque style, from 1050 into the 12th century, with little influence from the
                      Norman conquest. The church at Alatri can be dated back to 1137, and shows some aesthetic similarities with Anglo-Saxon churches in England, for example the
                      narrow circular arches and pillars in the aisles, similar to those found at Odda's chapel, Gloucestershire, and All Saints church, Turkdean. The use of the trefoil, introduced
                      at Winchester cathedral arouund 1180, with its emphasis on a triangular geometry, could also be related to the Anglo-Saxon use of dogtooth in windows and archways, and
                      the inclusion of spandrels in architecture. A fragment from St. Oswald's Priory, dating from the Anglo-Saxon period, in the Gloucester Museum, shows similarities with a
                      braiding pattern found at Anagni. Lloyd and Jennifer Laing  in "Celtic Britain and Ireland" suggest that the interlace design has an Anglo-Saxon origin, similar  to work found
                      at the Sutton Hoo 2 burial site.  The pulpit and ciborium (c1150) are mentioned in "Romanesque Sculpture in Italy" by Crichton, who attributes the trilobate arches to an
                      Islamic source, but the trefoil form can be found earlier at Alatri, and the trefoil arch also occurs in England around 1180, for example at Hailes Abbey.   

      ******    The use of an asymmetrical cupola dates possibly back to the Lombard church at Lomello, the Norman presence in Italy from 999, and in Spain, from 1085, suggests that
                      they developed the idea in Spain later. 

      *******  According to "English Romanesque Sculpture, 1066-1140", by George Zarnecki, such capitals (1089) are derived from the Corinthian design, and influenced by architecture
                      in Normandy, France, citing Bernay Abbey (c 1010) as a predecessor, see (****). .

     ******** The geometrical motifs at St. Mary the Virgin, Dymock, and St. Mary's, Kempley, are clearly related, with the spiral patterns asymmetrical and at opposite sides in the two
                      churches. The spiral designs occurs symmetrically in the chancel arch at Kempley, a feature of the Romanesque style in Italy, with the chancel arch decoration doubling the
                      frequency of the crests in the wall painting, above a semicircle, from red and grey to yellow. The corner capital style confirms the development as Norman, see also (***)
                      of this page and (****), (*****) here.

   *********    Work of the Herefordshire School, according to Zarnecki, see (******). The lance of St. George is pointing to the dragon and a bird, possibly a sandpiper or curlew.
                         It's direction is opposite to that of the cross at Byton, and perpendicular to the Y at Kempley, see (+) of this page and (*****) here.

   **********   According to Zarnecki, belonging to the period of Late Romanesque sculpture in England, from about 1160-1170. He mentions the diamond shaped and scroll patterns
                          appearing on the inner doorway, referring to the orders as alternating. He compares the outer doorway to that of Aulnay in France, which displays a continuous or repeating
                          pattern, but believes the development here is English. He also notes the fragment of the west doorway.

  ***********  The leonine beasts, facing each other across the palm tree, might be a precursor to the use of lions in medieval heraldry.
       
         (#)             Zarnecki dates the tympanum to the early 12th century, the Agnus Dei symbol appears next to the lion, in reference to the evangelist St. Mark. This does not signify
                          that the lion wil lie down with the lamb; "The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the
                          fatling together; and a little child shall lead them." (King James Version). Zarnecki dates the beakhead ornament at St. Ebbe's church  to about 1150, and notes the
                          influence of similar sculptures at Reading Abbey, from about 1130, the earliest known examples, which also influenced the Herefordshire School. In an article with
                          Henry, "Romanesque Arches Decorated with Human and Animal Heads", he argues that the designs may originate from Anglo-Saxon bird symbols, used in
                          manuscripts, though the use is usually in conjunction with the Norman chevron pattern, see (+++++). George Baxter in "Beakhead Ornament and the Corpus of
                          Romanesque Sculpture" dates the Old Sarum beakheads to 1130, and those at Reading Abbey to 1121, but Zarneck believes the latter are from about 1130,
                          so it seems to be an open question where exactly in England they originated. Baxter notes the presence of beakhead ornaments in Ireland, for example at
                          Clonmacnoise, noting a connection with French examples, but Zarnecki suggests they may have been introduced from Spain. The capitals at Romsey Abbey date
                          from 1140, and have a French Carolingian influence, see (!!!!). 

        (##)           The carving is difficult to see, but shows a slightly recessed Anglo-Saxon arch, which Clapham  believes are more common in the North of England, but can also be found
                          at Bradford-on-Avon. The strip on the exterior south wall, close to the chancel arch, as at Coln Rogers, is also mentioned in Clapham, but has a base block. There
                          is a round headed window which doesn't seem significant, but is again cited. I could find a double splay type, as at Bradford-on-Avon, though slightly pointed,. I'm
                          wondering if this is the one he means. The tomb slab is now in the British museum, and, according to Clapham, is Anglo-Saxon but with a Norwegian influence, the
                          Ringerike style. The herringbone pattern seems to be Anglo-Saxon, with similarities to the network at Earl's Barton, and using the dogtooth form. The doorway shows
                          recessing, again an Anglo-Saxon feature, the trefoils in the window are probably later, but, as I argue in (*****) are probably related to an Anglo-Saxon original. The
                          sundials at Daglingworth and Saintbury are similar, with 3 grooves beneath the central axis, representing the monastic times of Vespers, Sext and Matins, and suggesting
                          a 10-spoke design, similar to that at Kempley, see also (********).. The crucifixon sculptures at Wormington and Daglingworth are similar with a horizontal and vertical
                          design, rather than aY-shape, see (oo) here, suggesting that the Anglo-Saxons used both forms. The remaining Daglingworth sculpture shows the right hand in blessing.
                          The doorways at Castle Frome are typically Anglo-saxon with narrow circular arches, jambs and slight recessing. The sundial is also similar in form to those at Daglingworth
                          and Saintbury, but without visible grooving. The sundials at Bredon exhibit grooving patterns, as at Daglingworth and Saintbury.

        (###)          One of the capitals shows acanthus decoration, which Clapham compares to a design at Chichester Cathedral above the chancel, and can also be found in tenth century
                          manuscripts of the Winchester school. It must be earlier than possible Roman influences, for example near Coln St. Aldwyn's, from around 950, though I
                          haven't seen these. 

       (####)         The splay window at Barnsley has a slightly flattened, semi circular apex, see (##),  which I couldn't find at Bibury, though mentioned by Clapham, and I found a replica at
                           Ampney St. Mary. The jambs and tower at Ampney are typically Anglo-Saxon with oblong and triangular forms, which are mirrored, with semi circles in the font, there is
                           also an oblong window at Ampney Crucis.

          (!)            The first use of a lancet window form, with a slight apex, occurs at Cefalu Cathedral, an inspiration for the later style in England. The replacement of curves with more linear
                          forms is an influence on the Cosmati artists who worked later at Palermo; you can find more about their work in the following paper and I consider the relationship with
                          symmetry here.   

         (!!)          Peter Stafford in "Romanesque Churches of France", (2005), dates the church to 805, and argues that it is a precursor to the Romanesque style, noting the originality of
                        the apses and the interior apse detail. He also notes a similarity with Visigothic architecture, in the exterior keyhole arch forms. The plan here shows the first development
                        of radiating chapels in the apses of the east end and single apse in the west. Kenneth Conant in "Carolingian and Romanesque Archiecture 800-1200" makes the point that
                        development of this echelon idea occurs at Saint Philibert de Grandlieu (c814) 1 2 3 and Saint Germain, Auxerre (c850) 4, see also (!!!).  

         (!!!)         George Petrie in "The Ecclestical Architecture of Ireland, Anterior to the Anglo-Norman Invasion", (1845), dates the church to the 7th century, on historical grounds
                        connected to the sons of Nessan, but does give a careful analysis of Saxon architecture at other sites, including Glendalough and Reefert. He notes the dimensions of
                        the west front doorway, which had then been moved, but presumably subsequently replaced. The style conforms to early Saxon examples in England, for example at
                        Deerhurst, which is about 9th century, with a similar use of lintels in the arch. He doesn't mention the window form on the east side, which, due to the height, and the
                        semi-circularity of the apex conforms more to the style at Gernigny-du-Pres, see (!!). The presence of lintels in the arch suggests that this could be a combination of 2
                        forms. The attribution is based on the dates of the other 2 sites.

        (!!!!)        Millard Hearn in "Romanesque Sculpture: The Revival of Monumental Stone Sculpture in the Eleventh and Twelth Centuries", notes the new use of the geometric forms
                        of diagonals and ovals in the capital at Saint Benigne (1016), and a lunette in the doorway sculpture at Arles-sur-Tech, (1046). The 45 degree angle at the top of the
                        lunette suggests it could be formed by two intersecting semicircles, each passing through the other's centre, a theme which is repeated later in England at Romsey Abbey,
                        (1140), in 2 capitals, one consisting of two semicircles, the other two figure 8's, in which the central node is separated from the inflexions, also demonstrating a geometric
                        intelligence. Hearn suggests the genesis of these designs is Carolingian, noting the difference with regional styles, and observing that the Christ in Majesty sculpture of the
                        lunette is typical of earlier Carolingian designs. The use of the lunette in the Saint Sernin sculptures again suggests a Carolingian influence. There is an additional awareness
                        of symmetry and asymmetry in the symmetric designs of the angels and the asymmetric attitudes of the saints, with the right hand in blessing. Delarnelle suggests a single
                        authorship due to similarities between the designs, but attributes mainly a Byzantine or Roman influence. Hearn notes the similarities with the design of Christ in Majesty
                        from the Carolingian text of the "Godescale Gospels", (783), and the same design from the Ada group, Berlin, (900), which is generally attributed as Ottonian, but, as
                        Hearn argues could also be derived from a Carolingian source. The capital at Cluny (probably 1100) again uses a lunette in a Corinthian format.  

       (!!!!!)         The ambo in Milan, (1106), shows an awareness of mirror symmetry in the spirals of the relief design, and, as Hearn notes, a new use of repeating arch forms in a square.
                         The cusped nature of the overlaps in the arches suggests a connection with later cusp architectural forms, for example at St. Anne's chapel, Malbork. There is also a use
                          of inflexions in a cross design, but they are not separated, unlike at Romsey Abbey. Hearn suggests a local influence, but there might be an Ottonian connection here. The
                          frieze at Modena Cathedral (1106) combines the repeating cusped form with a lunette, so it is possibly influenced by both Carolingian and Ottonian sources, see also (!!!!)..

      (!!!!!!)         The triangular motif is similar to English dogtooth and herringbone networks of Anglo-Saxon architecture, see (##), there is also documentary evidence that there was
                          interaction between Anglo-Saxon and Saxon culture in Lorsch at this time. The octagonal chapel at Aachen was built by Charlemagne, the attached palace shows
                          similarities with the development of radiating chapels in France, see (!!) and the plan here, which can be found in "Carolinigian and Romanesque Aechitecture
                          800-1200" by Kenneth Conant, see also (!!).

        (~)             According to "Romanesque Sculture in Italy", by Crichton, the dragon form is typically used in the Lombard school of architecture, he distingusihes between dragons with
                          twisted tails, as at San Jacob, Regensberg, and dragons with knotted tails, as, here, in San Antimo, see also (***). Dragons can be lawful or evil in Christian mythology,
                          for example the clash of the red and white dragon in Arthurian mythology.

    
                                                                                                                         
       (~ ~)           Crichton also mentions the dragon form at Moscufo, 1159, and the opposite circular and pointed arch combinations, both constructed in 1176. Crichton notes the Lombard
                          influence first, while you can see both a Norman and Lombard design in the arches, see (***) and (!).

        (&)             The circular design of the capital at Ampney Crucis is similar to the form, commony found in Welsh churches of the geometric period, using Simon Jenkin's terminology in "England's Thousand
                           Best Churches"