Some images of the psychedelic;

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Psychedelic imagery is arguably a form of hallucination. However, the above images were obtained by a combination of
saturating and blowing up an original clear picture. Refracted light, occurs  in nature by a well established physical
process. This is one explanation for why psychedelic effects are more easily detected in the outlines of shapes and within the
contours of foliage and trees.  Another explanation is the sensitivity of the eye of the observer, the use of certain hallucinogenic
drugs, such as psilocibine, which occurs naturally in various forms of wild mushroom, being to increase such an optical sensitivity,
through detraction of the retina. In this sense, such hallucinations are physically real, though, perhaps, not normally,
though naturally, observed. This is in contrast to the more commonly accepted meaning of a hallucination, as being a thought
process, which cannot possibly bear any resemblance to physical reality. If the last image induces colours at the edge due to
the sharp transition from light to dark, this could be a hallucination in the latter sense. In the images below, the effect of diffraction is
explored in the blurring quality of light. The last image demonstrates refraction  through glass and reflection off a water surface. There
are some blurring effects due to thermal noise. The effect of light at different wavelengths on temperature could be due to dissipation
 of photon energies, behaving as a gas. The electromagnetic energy increases with the frequency of radiation according to the wave
theory, with an average photon momentum increasing with energy, and an overall increase in photon energies due to the standard
deviation change of the momentum distribution at higher energies. The Herschel  experiment paradoxically measures an increase in
temperature with lower frequency, but this seems to be due to the greater bandwidth in the red part of the spectrum. Scattering effects,
 as in the pictures below, cause the appearance of colours, even in the night sky, due to the lower position of the sun and the greater
amount of atmosphere which light has to pass through. This effect does not occur with stars, due to the greater elevation, as seen in the
 last image.

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Similarly to scattering, diffraction effects can also cause the appearance of colours, for example in the first image below, where
the contours of the arches seem highlighted in pink, brown or purple, suggesting mixtures. Different wavelengths of light cause
separate interference patterns due to path difference required for a phase shift, and may be reinforced at certain angles. The
diffraction model supports the idea of light as a wave, while scattering is the particle model. The resolution of this apparent
contradiction is not only of scientific interest, but also illustrates the enchanting and enigmatic nature of light. The comprehension
of light from both aesthetic and scientific perspectives seems to be an elusive but fascinating undertaking. A perfect understanding,
mirrored in the complete prediction of charge, current and electromagnetic fields, would inevitably lead not only to enormous
scientific advances but might also be a doorway to interstellar exploration and enormous possibilities for the human race. I have
used the images of doorways, lights, arches, abbeys and lanterns in the second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth images.              

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In the following images, taken of lanterns at night, we can observe a slight shift  in the colour of the scattered photon, as predicted
by the Compton experiment, and explained by the conservation of momentum in special relativity for particles. We can also see
regions of maxima and minima, as predicted by the wave model in diffraction effects. The blurring around the photon  path  is
reminiscent of a gas flare, and can be understood using the theory of photon gases effected by temperature, and Planck's distribution
for photon velocities. The diagonal white rays of ambient light contain all the above possibilities in one.  In the first image, we always
see two photon paths, blue and yellow, with a red blurring around the yellow. 

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In the first of the next images, which contains two light sources, we can see a cancellation effect, the blue and yellow photon paths
combining to form an expanded yellow region with a pink blurring. This could again be explained as a scattering effect, using the
particle model and conservation of momentum, the different blurring due to a difference in temperature as a result of the lower energy
of the resultant particle. There is also an unusual change in colour to a green and pink flash in a straight line ray, below the apex of the arch.
There could be a geometric effect here, with some reflection off the walls of the arch.  In the second image, we can see three light sources,
there is a wave interference effect, with some remaining wave pattern on the right, probably due to a slight asymmetry. In the second image,
taken with flash, we see a complete cancellation of the wave generated in the UV spectrum.  Similarly, there is a change in colour to a green,
pink and brown flash in a straight line ray. Again, there could be a geometric effect here, with some reflection off the linear angle of the building.
A further picture shows an unusual pair of photons, travelling in parallel. The presence of fire in one of the images, causes a cancellation in the
usual wave pattern below the light source, which could be explained by thermal noise. In the third image, we can see 2 photon paths at different
angles, suggesting that, in this case, 1 photon is not losing energy at different points on its trajectory. Again we can see a brown ray, but
combined with a silver ray, possibly due to the presence of a corner. There is a reflection effect off a wall, cancelling the interefernce pattern
towards the viewer. In one image, we see an unusual 10 point photon pattern, possibly due to the curved geometry of the adjoining arch.
Again, we can see a red thermal noise effect with a yellow photon losing energy. There is also a fringe effect in two of the images, with refraction
taking place, between air and vacuum at the air/paint interface, reflection fron the wall surface, and refraction back across the paint/air interface.
The velocity, small angle and wavelenth  ratio in refraction at a given wavelength are the same by Snell's Law, the frequency being unchanged,
as no energy is lost, but the velocity ratio changes for different wavelengths or frequencies, effectively changing the transmission distance
for the incident beam at different frequencies. This is according to Huygen's wave theory, which is seen here, but the photon model would give
 a different result, as explained in Newton's theory. In the fourth image, we can see inside a yellow photon pair, with red thermal noise, and some blue
thermal noise, with the track of the originating photon invisible. This again could be a geometric effect due to the linear fragmented apex of the
arch and the blue source, surrounding the white light. Outside the building, there is an interference effect, further blue noise with a blue source, and
a cubic brown pattern, which moves, grows fainter and eventually disappears, relative to the angle of the observer. This must be due to the linear
geometry of the building, with the source at the corner. In the fifth image, we can see a blue conical ray and a corresponding yellow photon with
red thermal noise. The two paths are not aligned, perhaps corresponding to an electrical and magnetic field. In light, the axes are always perpendicular,
but in non-zero charge driven radiation, this need not be the case.  It is  an open  question as to what conditions are required for charge and current not
to radiate. Larmor proved that accelerating charges radiate, while static fields do not radiate, or when the charges move with constant velocity.
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Cannabis is another drug commonly associated to hallucinatory experiences. Cannabis contains cannabidiolic acid, with a pH between 4 and 6. This
has the effect of speeding up the nervous system slightly, as was observed by a combination of chemists and biologists such as Nernst  and Bernstein.
The Nernst equation, relating the electrical potential, temperature and equilibrium coefficient for electrolysis reactions, predicts an increase in the activity
of the reaction, with an increase in potential, an observation also made by Faraday in the amount of substance formed being proportional to the amount
of electricity passed. The Bernstein formula is analogous with the equilibrium coefficient being replaced by the ratio of concentrations of positive ions,
between the activated and equilibrium concentrations, corresponding to the activated and equilibrium potentials. An increase in acidity will increase
the potential at the nerve synapse, with greater conduction, associated with the drug "high". Technically though, such hallucinatory experiences correspond
to something chemically real. Cocaine also speeds up the nervous system but it is an alkali. One explanation of this effect is that it blocks inhibitors such as
gamma-amiobutyric acid, through neutralisation. The process of inhibition of an ion channel by an acid might be related to a local change in resistance, such
effects being observed in physics with the use of transistors to control he flow of current in another channel, or even electromagnetic phenomena such as the
induction or deflection or current. Morphine, an opioid, is a weak alkali, but it has the opposite effect to cocaine, slowing down the nervous system and
providing pain relief. It can have a strange alternating effect on nerve conduction, without completely eradicating the nerve signal. This might suggest that
it alters local potentials in the body, similar to the effect of depressing or releasing a guitar string, and changes the geometry of natural electrical signals,
effectively increasing the wavelength and decreasing the frequency. This can ultimately eradicate the background transmission,.with the energy loss being
compensated by an increase in body temperature. Both cocaine and morphine can produce hallucinations or vivid dreams, a famous example being
Coleridge's use of laudanum when beginning the poem "Kubla Khan", but again, such effects are in some sense physically real.