Some Major Stylistic Periods of Medieval Art and Architecture

                                                                                 Churches, Abbeys, Cathedrals, Basilicas and Monasteries.


England; 1. Early Christian                     (c500-600)                       archway of St. Piran's oratory.
              2. Anglo-Saxon                       (c450-1066)                     archway of Odda's chapelwindow and archways (detail) (+) of  St. Mary's, Deerhurst, sculpture
                                                                                                      in Saint Laurence, Bradford on Avon, Hedda stone, Peterborough, windows and doorway
                                                                                                      of Earl's Barton church and windows of Brixworth church, Northamptonshire, font of St. Mary's,
                                                                                                      Luppitt, window (detail) of St. Bueno's church, Devon, window of Wembury church, Devon,
                                                                                                      tower of St. Margaret's church, Bagendon, tower of St. Peter's church, Barton-upon-Humber,
                                                                                                      tower (random) and archway of St. Michael's church, Duntisbourne Rouse, interior of Escomb
                                                                                                      church, Durham, interior of St. Mary's church, Reculver, Kent, tower of St. Paul's monastery,
                                                                                                      Jarrow, round tower of Burnham Deepdale church, Norfolk, doorway of St. James the Great
                                                                                                      church, Coln St. Dennis, doorway, westwork, archway and spandrel of St. Michael and all
                                                                                                      Angels, Ledbury, tower of Tewkesbury Abbey, church  house buildings  of  Gloucester
                                                                                                      Cathedral 1 2doorway of  St. Mary's Priory church, Monmouth, saddleback tower of St. Mary's
                                                                                                      church, Syde, tower of St. Oswalds church, Lassington, tower of St. Swithuns church, Brookthorpe,
                                                                                                       tower of St Margaret's church, Bagendon carving and archway at the Holy Rood church,
                                                                                                       Daglingworth, tower of St. Peter's church, Duntisbourne Abbots, tower and window of St. Michael's
                                                                                                       church, Duntisbourne Rouse, north doorway, south doorway (detail) and arch of St. Mary's, Great
                                                                                                       Washbourne, (+++).
                3. Celtic                                 (c500-1150)                      Font details 1 and 2 of St. Mary Magdelene church, Stoke Canon,
               4. Romanesque                      (c1100-1200)                    archway near Siverton village, doorway of St. Michael and All Angels church, Meeth, exterior
                                                                                                       columns 1 2 and interior columns 1 2 of the Priory church, Leominster, left archway columns 1 2 ,
                                                                                                       right archway columns 1 2, central archway columns 1 2 and dragon form of Shobdon church, see
               5. Norman                             (c1066-1180)                    west door and dragon form of St. Michael and All Angels, Gallilee Chapel, Durham Cathedral,
                                                                                                      north door of Stanley Pontlarge church, pillars of  Pershore Abbey,
                                                                                                      vault of  Durham Cathedral, nave of Tewkesbury Abbey, crossing vault of
                                                                                                      Worcester Cathedral, doorway of Eckington church, doorway of Guiting Power church,
                                                                                                      doorway(s) of Withington church, upper archway of Bibury church,  nave (detail) and doorway
                                                                                                      of Leominster church, doorway of English Bicknor, doorway of Bredon church, doorway
                                                                                                      of Westwell church, corner capitals 1 2 3 4 of Coln St. Denis church, doorway of Coln St. Aldwyns
                                                                                                      church, doorway of Ledbury church, north wall of Rock church, arch, westwork (**) and choir arcades
                                                                                                      of Hereford cathedral, corner capital, font, vault, corner capitals 1 2vault and tower of Holy Cross
                                                                                                      church, Avening,  corner capital of  St. John the Baptist's church, Hatherleigh, nave of St. Mary's,
                                                                                                      Kempley, doorway of Kilpeck church, doorway of Lincoln cathedral, corner butresses of
                                                                                                      Chipping Campden church, corner capital of Garway church, capital, archway and dragon form
                                                                                                      (++) of Tredington church, nave and pillars of Peterborough cathedral, corner capitals and archway
                                                                                                      of Iffley church, archway of St. Mary's, Shrewsbury, pillarcapital and archway of
                                                                                                       Morwenstow church, nave and capital of Gloucester cathedral, doorway of St. Mary's, Gloucester,
                                                                                                       window of Boddington church, windows  of  St. Andrew's church, Bere Ferrers, 1 2
                                                                                                       (interior view) 3 (linear), 3(cistercian,cusp), 4(cusp), (interior view)  5 (geometric, random),
                                                                                                       windows of St. Mary's church, Luppitt, 1 2 (linear) 3 (cusp), doorway of Kilkhampton church,
                                                                                                       window (interior view) (linear) of Doddisombleigh church, window (cusp) of St. Petroc's,
                                                                                                       Lydford, window (linear) of St. Michael de la Rupe church, Brentor, windows, 1 (cusp,random)
                                                                                                       2 (linear) of Saint Werburgh's church, Wembury, window (geometric, random) of Saint Winifred's
                                                                                                       church, Branscombe, windows 1 2 (cusp) 3 (random) of St. Mary's church, Rewe, windows
                                                                                                       1(cusp) 2 (cusp, cistercian) of St. Thomas's church, Thorverton, window (cusp) of St. Michael's,
                                                                                                       Cadbury, tower of St. Paul de Leon church, Staverton, towers of St. Nonna's church, Bradstone,
                                                                                                       and St. Bridget's church, Bridestowe,  window (linear) and font of Holy Trinity, Drewsteignton,
                                                                                                       arch scroll (detail) of St. Petroc's, Inwardleigh,  font and doorway (s) of St. Nonna's church, Alturnun,
                                                                                                       font of St. Mary the Virgin, Bratton Clovelly, tower of  St. German's church, Germansweek, tower
                                                                                                       of St. Michael's church, Meeth, windows, doorways (1), (2) , archways, corner capitals (1), (2),
                                                                                                       column, stringcourse and cross rib vaulting of St. German's church, St. German, doorway and
                                                                                                       buttressing of  St. Peter's, Revelstoke, archway of St.Peter's church, Tiverton, window (linear) of
                                                                                                       St. Mary's church, Hemyock, font and piscina of St. Mary's church, Cheriton Bishop, corner
                                                                                                       capitals 1 2 3 4 of Holy Cross church, Crediton, font (detail) of St. Michael and all Angels, Exeter,
                                                                                                      doorways 1 2 and typanum of St. John the Baptist church and windows of the Bishop's Palace,
                                                                                                      Bishopsteignton, font of All Saint's church, Eggesford, archway details 1 2 of St. Mary's church,
                                                                                                      High Bickington,  font and window of St. Pancras's church, Exeter, doorway and corner capital
                                                                                                      of All Saints church, North Cerney, font details (1), (2), (3), (4) of St. Peter's church, Rendcomb,
                                                                                                      doorway and corner capital of St. Peter's church, Southrop, archway and tower of Temple church,
                                                                                                      Temple, Cornwall, archway (detail), corner capitals 1, 2 and window (linear) of St. Michael's church,
                                                                                                      Shebbear, corner capitals 1 2 of St. Michael's church, Duntisbourne Rouse, archway , pillars 1, 2
                                                                                                      and window (linear)of St. Mary's church, Great Barrington, archway and corner capitals 1 2 of St.
                                                                                                      Peters church, Little Barrington, font details 1 2 3 4 and piscina of St.Michael's church, Spreyton,
                                                                                                      font of St. Michael and All Angels church, Frithelstock,  archway details 1 2 of St. Benedict's church,
                                                                                                      Buckland Brewer, archway details 1 2 and font of All Saints church, Clovelly, font of St. Matthew's
                                                                                                      church, Butterleigh, archway details 1 2 of St. James' church, Parkham, archway details 1 2 of
                                                                                                      All Hallows church, Woolfardisworthy, font of All Saints church, Merton, arch fragment of
                                                                                                      St. Michael's church, Dowdeswell, archway of St.Mary's church, East Worlington, archway details
                                                                                                      1 2 of St. Giles's church, Ashleigh,  entrance archway details 1 2 3chancel archway details 1 2 3
                                                                                                      and  window (exterior view) of St. Mary's church, Lower Swell, archway details 1 2 of St. Mary's,
                                                                                                      church, Upper Swell, archway and carvings 1 2 of Elkstone church, westwork ,(**),of Tewkesbury
                                                                                                      abbey, trefoil capital of Winchester Cathedral, doorway of St. Mary's Priory church, Monmouth,
                                                                                                      doorway and pillars of St. Swithun's church, Leonard Stanley, cushion capitals 1 2 of Gloucester
                                                                                                      Cathedral crypt, (****), tympanum and corner capital of St. Stephen's church, Moreton Valence,
                                                                                                      corner capitals of Herford cathedral, corner capital and tympanum (detail (s)) of St. Andrew's church,
                                                                                                      Brewardine, tympanum of St. Mary's church, Byton (*****), tympanum of St. Nicholas' church,
                                                                                                      Gloucester, tympanum of Shobdon church, archway and column of the Priory church, Leominster,
                                                                                                      (******), butresses of St. Mary's, Little Washourne. 
               6. Lancet (Early English)          (c1180-1275)                  Wells Cathedral, nave of Lincoln Cathedral, abbeys of BylandRievaulx and Whitby in
                                                                                            .         Yorkshire, lancet windows of York Cathedral, nave and lancet windows of Salisbury
                                                                                                      cathedral, piscina in  Saint  Dubricius's, Porlock, arcade and colonettes of 
                                                                                                      Worcester Cathedral, windows of  Sevenhampton church, windows of Castle Combe
                                                                                                      church, outbuilding of Buckland abbey, lancet window of St. Andrew's church, Bere Ferrers,
                                                                                                       window of Tintagel church, window of St. Swithuns church, Cornwall, window of St.Mary's, Luppitt,
                                                                                                       window of St. Petroc's church, Lydford, window of de la Rupe church, window of St. Michael's,
                                                                                                       Cadbury, windows 1 2 (trefoil) of St. Mary's church, Poltimore, buttresses 1 2 (trefoil) of St. Mary's,
                                                                                                       Bickleigh, doorway of St. John the Baptist Church, Bere Regis, Dorset, window (s) and arcade  of
                                                                                                       Exeter Cathedral, St. John the Baptist's church, Hatherleigh, font of St. Peter's church, Southrop,
                                                                                                       window and piscina, of St. Mary's church, Great Washbourne, font and piscinas 1 2 of St. Margaret
                                                                                                       of Antioch church , Alderton, doorway of King Charles the Martyr's church, Falmouth, piscinas of
                                                                                                       St. Mary's church, Silverton, windows of St. Michael and All Angels church, Frithelstock, piscina of
                                                                                                       St. Matthew's church, Butterleigh, font of St. Michael and All Angels church, Meeth, font of All
                                                                                                       Hallows church, Woolfardisworthy, lower archway of St. Mary's church, Bibury, arches 1 2 of Hailes
                                                                                                       Abbey, buttress of Hereford Cathedral, trefoil plate tracery of Winchester Cathedral.
               7. Response to Geometric        (c1240-1280)                  Choir of Lincoln Cathedral, chapterhouse of Westminster Abbey, cloister of Salisbury
                                                                                                      cathedral, arch detail of Sevenhampton church, cloister window of Exeter cathedral,
                                                                                                      window of St. Michael's, Buckland, cloister of Gloucester cathedral, arch detail of Culhumpton church,
                                                                                                      window of St. Mary's, Rewe, window (interior view)of St.Petroc's church, Lydford, window of St. Mary's
                                                                                                      church, Huxham, Devon, window (interior view) of St. Mary's, Poltimore, windows 1 2 3 4 5 of St. Peter's
                                                                                                      church, Tiverton, window of St. Ida the Green , Ide,  window of  St. Mary's, Upton Hellions, balustrade
                                                                                                      and turret of St. John the Baptist church, Plymtree, font (random) of St.Mary's church, Great Washbourne,
                                                                                                      font (random) of St. Mary's church, Black Torrington, balustrade of  King Charles the Martyr's church,
                                                                                                      Falmouth, balustrade of St. Michael and All Angels church, Frithelstock, fragment at Hailes Abbey, quatrefoils
                                                                                                      at Gloucester Cathedral, window and archway of St. Mary's Church, Ross-on-Wye, window of St. Lawrence
                                                                                                      church, Stroud, (plan) 
               8. Linear                                  (c1280-1300)                  St. Etheldreda's church window, London, Merton College Chapel Windows, Oxford, Buckland Abbey,
                                                                                                      cloister window (s) of Exeter cathedral, Bere Ferrers church window (interior view) (detail), window of
                                                                                                      St. Nonna's church, Altarnun.
               9. Cusp                                    (c1280)                           window (s), (detail), of Gulval church, Penzance.  St. Ives church, Cornwall, window of Kilkhampton
                                                                                                      church, doorway (detail) of St. Mary's, Stoke Cannon, window of St. Mary's church, Silverton
                                                                                                      (interior view), windows 1 2 of St. John's church, Broadclyst, window of St. Mary's church, Poltimore,
                                                                                                       window (detail) (interior view) of St. Mary's church, Bickleigh, windows 1 2 of St. Mary's church, Upton
                                                                                                       Pyne, window of St. John the Baptist church, Netherexe, doorway of St. Andrew's church, Coln Rogers.
               10. Response to Rayonnant        (c1280-1300)                  Boyton Church rose window, Wiltshire, St. Mary's window, Cheltenham, window of  St. Peter's church,
                                                                                                        Bramford Speke.
               11. Perpendicular                       (c1380-1520)                  East window, cloister window(s), arcade wall and vault of Gloucester cathedral, east window of
                                                                                                        St. Mary's, Frampton on Severn,  window of St. Andrew's church, Moretonhampstead,
                                                                                                        font of St. Michael's church, Dowdeswell, spade design, fan and spade vaulting (detail) of St. Peter's church,
                                                                                                        Winchcombe, outbuilding of Sudeley Castle, fan vaulting, archway and window of St. John the Baptist church,
                                                                                                        Cirencester, outbuilding at Bourton Hill,  spade design and window of St. Mary's church, Painswick, spade
                                                                                                        and shield design at Greyfriars church, Gloucester, fan vaulting of Beverston chapel. .
 Wales;     1.  Norman                              (c1066-1180)                  Chevron pattern of St. Mary's church, Monmouth.
                2.  Romanesque                      (c1066-1180)                   Windows, 1 2, and doorways,  1 2 of St. Thomas's church, Monmouth.
                3.  Lancet                                (c1180-1275)                  Nave (arch detail) of Tintern Abbey, Llanthony Priory, lancet windows of Abbey Dore.
                4. Geometric                           (c1240-1280)                  Clearstorey windows of Tintern Abbey.

Ireland      1. Anglo-Saxon                      (c850-1150)                    Round tower at Rock of Cashel, round tower of Monasterboice.      

Scotland; 1. Lancet                                 (c1180-1275)                  Crypt of St. Kentigern, lancet windows of Glasgow Cathedral
               2. Perpendicular                       (c1380-1520)                  spade design at Rosslyn chapel, Roslin.

Sweden:  1. Romanesque                        (c1100-1250)                  Apse and crypt pillars of Lund cathedral
               2. Regional Gothic                    (c1250-1400)                 Storkyran interior, Stockholm    

Gotland;  1. Romanesque                        (c1100-1250)                  Tower of St. Lars, St. Drottens in Visby, Gotland, cloister pavement in Roma, Gotland.
  (*)         2. Response to Geometric/       (c1200-1300)                 Vaultdoorway (cusp) and window (cusp) of Helge And, crossing and doorway of St. Lars, St. Katarina
                   English                                                                         rose window of St. Nicolaus, St. Clemensdefensive walls in Visby, Gotland.          
               3. Regional Gothic                    (c1250-1400)                 Doorway(s) and window of Tofta, doorway and window of Masterby, more doorway(s) of Bro
                                                                                                      churches in Gotland

Denmark; 1. Romanesque                       (c1100-1200)                 Doorway of Osterlars church, Ostermarie church, Bornholm, crypt of Viborg cathedral,
                                                                                                     doorway and pillar of Ribe cathedral, doorway of Aalborg church, crypt of Arhus cathedral,
                                                                                                     Roskilde cathedral
                2. Norman                              (c1100-1180)                 Stege church, doorway of Helsingborg churchpillar of Absalon's church, Copenhagen
                3. Response to English             (c1200-1300)                Sakskobing church
                4. Response to Lancet             (c1200-1300)                Vejle church
                5. Response to Cistercian        (c1250-1300)                 Bornholm round churches of Osterlars, OlskerNyker and Nylars.
                6. Regional Gothic                   (c1350)                          Frescoes of Osterlars ( 1 2 3 ), Nyker (1 2 3) and Nylars ( 1 2 3 ), Bornholm.
                7. Regional Scandinavian         (c1250-1400)                 Elmelund church, Svendborg church, Nakskov church, Odense cathedral, Vor Frue Kirke,
                                                                                                     Odense, St. Olav's church, Faroe Islands, (***).
Norway;   1. Norman                              (c1100-1180)                Cathedral of St. Halvard, Royal Chapel of St. Mary's, (ambient), Oslo, Archbishop's Palace
                                                                                                     and archway of the cathedral in Trondheim, archway and pillar of Stavanger cathedral doorway (detail)
                                                                                                     of  St. Paul's church, Bergen.
                 2. Cistercian                           (c1150)                          Hovedoy cloister , Oslo
                 3. Romanesque                       (c1100-1200)                Doorway (detail) and interior (1 2) of  St. Mary's Church, Bergen, doorway (interior) of Varhaug church, Stavanger.
                 4. Response to English            (c1200-1300)                Trondheim Cathedral nave, Apostle's church, Bergen

Sicily;        1. Norman                              (c1070-1180)                Pavement of  San Cataldo church, Pavement of Capella Palatina in Palazzo dei Normanni,
                                                                                                     Choir Pavements of Monreale Cathedral.

Poland      1.Response to Geometric         (c1280-)                         St. Anne's chapel , Malbork Castle.
                 2.Response to Scandinavian     (c1350)                          St. Mary's church, Gdansk.
Belgium     1. Romanesque                        (c1134-1139)                 Columns and  doorway of St. Basil's chapel, Bruges.  
                 2. Regional Gothic                   (c1250-1400)                 Vault of St. Michael's church, St. Nicholas's church, Ghent. 
Austria      1. Romanesque                        (c1140-1200)                 Crypt of Gurk Cathedral.  

(+)           According to Zernicki, a precursor of beak-head ornamentation developed in Norman art, noting the parallel grooves.
(++)         The parallel grooves suggest a relationship with the form at Deerhurst, further supporting the idea that Anglo-Norman sculpture was influenced by
                Anglo-Saxon art.
(+++)       There is a resemblance with the arch forms at Odda's chapel and Turkdean,  but the chancel arch could be Anglo-Norman, the star pattern is similar
                 to those at Brewardine, see (*****).
(*)             Now part of Sweden, but, at the time of construction, a Danish province, see Liber Census Daniae, often referred to as Kong Valdemar's Jorgebok.
(**)           Anglo-Saxon feature introduced into Norman archiecture by Robert of Jumieges in 1067, the triangular design dating from Lorsch abbey.
(***)         Possibly built as early as 1200.
(****)       According to "English Romanesque Scupture, 1066-1140", by George Zarnecki, cushion capitals are Anglo-Norman but had already been used
                  in Anglo-Saxon buidings; one can observe the simlarity with earlier designs, such as at Odda's chapel, Gloucestershire. He argues that they were
                  introduced between 1066 and 1100, dating the crypt to 1089.
(*****)     In the same book, Zarnecki argues that corner capitals and tympana were introduced between 1100 and 1140, "The doorways often had carved
                  voussoirs, tympana, capitals and shafts, he dates this part of St. Stephen's church  to 1120. The detail of the column at Hereford Cathedral
                  resembling the carving at Daglingworth, and the star patterns at Brewardine, with their centralised geometries, again suggest an
                  Anglo-Saxon influence. Again, there  is a similar influence at Byton,  Zarnecki notes that these abstract patterns "so typical of some Anglo-Saxon
                  carvings, survived in many works that date from the late 11th or early 12th century". The Agnus Dei symbol is unusual in that the cross slants diagonally
                  rather than vertically, as in the Valviscolo cloisters, Italy, Kilpeck, Great Washbourne and Temple Guiting, suggesting a stronger Norman rather then
                 Cistercian influence.
(******)  This belongs to the period of Later Romanesque sculpture, 1140-1210, discussed in Zarnecki's  following book. He dates Shobdon to around 1140,
                 idenifying the columns as the first works of the Herefordshire School, the porticoe with the trefoil pattern is influenced by Anglo-Saxon designs, but is
                 Anglo-Norman. The columns at the Priory church are later works of the Herefordshire schooll, again there is a combination of Anglo-Saxon and
                 Norman motifs in the archway and column.