Some Major Stylistic Periods of Medieval Art and
Churches, Abbeys, Cathedrals, Basilicas and Monasteries.
England; 1. Early
archway of St. Piran's
Odda's chapel, window
(+) of St.
Mary's, Deerhurst, sculpture
Laurence, Bradford on
stone, Peterborough, windows
Barton church and windows
of Brixworth church, Northamptonshire, font
of St. Mary's,
Luppitt, window (detail) of St.
Bueno's church, Devon, window
of Wembury church, Devon,
of St. Margaret's church, Bagendon, tower of St.
Peter's church, Barton-upon-Humber,
tower (random) and archway of St. Michael's church,
Duntisbourne Rouse, interior of Escomb
church, Durham, interior of St. Mary's
church, Reculver, Kent, tower of St. Paul's
Jarrow, round tower of Burnham
Deepdale church, Norfolk, doorway of St. James
church, Coln St. Dennis, doorway, westwork, archway
and spandrel of St. Michael and all
Ledbury, tower of Tewkesbury Abbey,
church house buildings of
Cathedral 1 2,
doorway of St. Mary's Priory church,
Monmouth, saddleback tower of St. Mary's
church, Syde, tower of St. Oswalds
church, Lassington, tower of St.
Swithuns church, Brookthorpe,
tower of St Margaret's church,
Bagendon carving and archway
the Holy Rood church,
Daglingworth, tower of St.
Duntisbourne Abbots, tower
and window of St. Michael's
church, Duntisbourne Rouse, north doorway, south doorway (detail) and arch of St. Mary's, Great
Font details 1 and 2 of St. Mary Magdelene
church, Stoke Canon,
archway near Siverton village, doorway of St. Michael and All Angels church,
columns 1 2
and interior columns 1 2 of the Priory church, Leominster, left
archway columns 1 2
right archway columns 1 2, central archway columns 1 2 and dragon form of Shobdon
west door and dragon form of St.
and All Angels, Gallilee
Pontlarge church, pillars
vault of Durham
Cathedral, nave of Tewkesbury
Worcester Cathedral, doorway
of Eckington church, doorway
Guiting Power church,
archway of Bibury
church, nave (detail)
of Leominster church, doorway of
Bredon church, doorway
church, corner capitals 1 2
3 4 of
Coln St. Denis church, doorway
of Ledbury church, north
church, arch, westwork
(**) and choir
of Hereford cathedral, corner
capital, font, vault,
corner capitals 1 2, vault and
tower of Holy Cross
church, Avening, corner capital
of St. John the Baptist's church, Hatherleigh, nave
of Kilpeck church, doorway
of Lincoln cathedral, corner
Chipping Campden church, corner
capital of Garway
church, capital, archway
(++) of Tredington church, nave
capitals and archway
of Iffley church, archway of
St. Mary's, Shrewsbury, pillar, capital
and archway of
and capital of Gloucester
of St. Mary's, Gloucester,
church, windows of St. Andrew's church, Bere
Ferrers, 1 2
view) 3 (linear), 3(cistercian,cusp), 4(cusp), (interior
view) 5 (geometric,
windows of St.
Mary's church, Luppitt, 1 2
(cusp), doorway of Kilkhampton church,
window (interior view) (linear) of
Doddisombleigh church, window (cusp) of
Lydford, window (linear) of
St. Michael de la Rupe
church, Brentor, windows, 1 (cusp,random)
2 (linear) of Saint Werburgh's
(geometric, random) of Saint Winifred's
church, Branscombe, windows 1 2
(cusp) 3 (random) of St. Mary's church,
1(cusp) 2 (cusp, cistercian) of St. Thomas's
church, Thorverton, window
(cusp) of St. Michael's,
Cadbury, tower of St. Paul de
Staverton, towers of St. Nonna's church,
and St. Bridget's church,
Bridestowe, window (linear)
and font of Holy Trinity,
arch scroll (detail)
of St. Petroc's, Inwardleigh, font
and doorway (s) of St.
Nonna's church, Alturnun,
of St. Mary the Virgin, Bratton Clovelly, tower
of St. German's church,
of St. Michael's church, Meeth, windows,
doorways (1), (2)
, archways, corner capitals (1), (2),
rib vaulting of St. German's church,
St. German, doorway and
buttressing of St.
Peter's, Revelstoke, archway
of St.Peter's church, Tiverton, window
St. Mary's church, Hemyock, font
and piscina of St. Mary's church,
capitals 1 2 3 4 of Holy Cross
church, Crediton, font (detail) of St. Michael and all Angels,
doorways 1 2 and typanum
of St. John the Baptist church and windows
of the Bishop's Palace,
Bishopsteignton, font of All Saint's
church, Eggesford, archway details 1 2
of St. Mary's church,
High Bickington, font and window of St. Pancras's church, Exeter, doorway and corner
of All Saints church, North Cerney, font details (1), (2), (3), (4) of St.
Peter's church, Rendcomb,
doorway and corner
capital of St. Peter's church, Southrop, archway
and tower of Temple church,
Temple, Cornwall, archway (detail), corner capitals 1, 2 and window (linear) of St. Michael's church,
Shebbear, corner capitals 1 2 of St. Michael's church, Duntisbourne
Rouse, archway , pillars 1, 2
and window (linear)of St. Mary's
church, Great Barrington, archway
and corner capitals 1 2 of St.
Peters church, Little Barrington, font
details 1 2 3 4 and piscina of St.Michael's church, Spreyton,
font of St. Michael and All Angels church,
Frithelstock, archway details 1 2 of St.
Buckland Brewer, archway details 1 2 and font of All Saints church, Clovelly, font of St. Matthew's
church, Butterleigh, archway details 1 2 of St. James'
church, Parkham, archway details 1 2
All Hallows church, Woolfardisworthy, font
of All Saints church, Merton, arch fragment
St. Michael's church, Dowdeswell, archway
of St.Mary's church, East
Worlington, archway details
1 2 of St.
Giles's church, Ashleigh, entrance
archway details 1 2 3, chancel archway details 1 2 3
and window (exterior view) of St. Mary's church, Lower
Swell, archway details 1 2 of St.
church, Upper Swell, archway and
carvings 1 2
of Elkstone church, westwork ,(**),of
abbey, trefoil capital of Winchester
of St. Mary's Priory church, Monmouth,
and pillars of St. Swithun's church,
Leonard Stanley, cushion capitals 1 2 of Gloucester
Cathedral crypt, (****), tympanum
and corner capital of St. Stephen's
corner capitals of Herford cathedral, corner capital and tympanum (detail
of St. Andrew's church,
Brewardine, tympanum of St.
Mary's church, Byton (*****), tympanum
Gloucester, tympanum of
Shobdon church, archway and column of the Priory church, Leominster,
(******), butresses of St.
Mary's, Little Washourne.
6. Lancet (Early English)
Cathedral, nave of Lincoln
Cathedral, abbeys of Byland, Rievaulx
. Yorkshire, lancet
windows of York
Dubricius's, Porlock, arcade
of Sevenhampton church, windows
of Castle Combe
of Buckland abbey, lancet window of
St. Andrew's church, Bere Ferrers,
window of Tintagel church, window of St. Swithuns church, Cornwall, window of St.Mary's, Luppitt,
window of St.
Petroc's church, Lydford, window of de la Rupe church, window
of St. Michael's,
Cadbury, windows 1 2 (trefoil) of St. Mary's church,
Poltimore, buttresses 1 2 (trefoil) of St. Mary's,
Bickleigh, doorway of St. John the
Baptist Church, Bere Regis, Dorset, window (s) and arcade
Exeter Cathedral, St. John the Baptist's
church, Hatherleigh, font of St.
Peter's church, Southrop,
window and piscina, of St. Mary's church,
Great Washbourne, font and piscinas 1 2 of St.
of Antioch church , Alderton, doorway
of King Charles the Martyr's church, Falmouth, piscinas
St. Mary's church, Silverton, windows
of St. Michael and All Angels church,
Frithelstock, piscina of
St. Matthew's church, Butterleigh, font of
St. Michael and All Angels church, Meeth, font of All
Hallows church, Woolfardisworthy, lower archway
of St. Mary's church, Bibury, arches 1 2 of Hailes
Abbey, buttress of Hereford
Cathedral, trefoil plate tracery of
7. Response to
Choir of Lincoln
Cathedral, chapterhouse of Westminster
detail of Sevenhampton church, cloister
window of Exeter cathedral,
Michael's, Buckland, cloister
of Gloucester cathedral, arch detail of
window of St. Mary's, Rewe, window (interior
view)of St.Petroc's church, Lydford, window
of St. Mary's
church, Huxham, Devon, window
(interior view) of St. Mary's,
Poltimore, windows 1 2 3 4 5 of St.
church, Tiverton, window of St.
Ida the Green , Ide, window
of St. Mary's, Upton Hellions, balustrade
and turret of St. John the
Baptist church, Plymtree, font
(random) of St.Mary's church, Great Washbourne,
font (random) of St. Mary's church,
Black Torrington, balustrade of King
Charles the Martyr's
Falmouth, balustrade of St.
Michael and All Angels church, Frithelstock, fragment
at Hailes Abbey, quatrefoils
at Gloucester Cathedral, window and archway of St. Mary's Church, Ross-on-Wye, window of St. Lawrence
church, Stroud, (plan)
Etheldreda's church window, London, Merton College Chapel
of Exeter cathedral, Bere Ferrers
church window (interior view) (detail), window
Nonna's church, Altarnun.
window (s), (detail), of Gulval church,
Penzance. St. Ives church,
Cornwall, window of Kilkhampton
church, doorway (detail)
of St. Mary's, Stoke Cannon, window of
St. Mary's church,
(interior view), windows 1
2 of St. John's church, Broadclyst, window of St.
Mary's church, Poltimore,
window (detail) (interior
view) of St. Mary's
church, Bickleigh, windows 1 2 of
St. Mary's church, Upton
Pyne, window of St. John the Baptist church, Netherexe, doorway of St. Andrew's church, Coln Rogers.
10. Response to Rayonnant
Boyton Church rose
window, Wiltshire, St. Mary's window,
Cheltenham, window of St. Peter's church,
arcade wall and vault
of Gloucester cathedral, east
Mary's, Frampton on Severn, window
of St. Andrew's church, Moretonhampstead,
font of St. Michael's
church, Dowdeswell, spade design, fan and spade
vaulting (detail) of St. Peter's church,
Winchcombe, outbuilding of Sudeley Castle, fan vaulting, archway
and window of St. John the Baptist
Cirencester, outbuilding at Bourton
Hill, spade design and window of St. Mary's church,
and shield design at Greyfriars
church, Gloucester, fan vaulting of
Beverston chapel. .
Chevron pattern of St.
Mary's church, Monmouth.
Windows, 1 2, and doorways, 1 2 of St. Thomas's church,
detail) of Tintern Abbey,
windows of Abbey
windows of Tintern Abbey.
Round tower at
Rock of Cashel, round tower
Scotland; 1. Lancet
of St. Kentigern, lancet
windows of Glasgow Cathedral
spade design at Rosslyn chapel, Roslin.
and crypt pillars
Gotland; 1. Romanesque
Visby, Gotland, cloister
in Roma, Gotland.
(*) 2. Response to
Vault, doorway (cusp)
(cusp) of Helge And, crossing
of St. Lars, St. Katarina,
window of St. Nicolaus,
St. Clemens, defensive
walls in Visby, Gotland.
3. Regional Gothic
of Tofta, doorway
churches in Gotland
church, Bornholm, crypt
of Viborg cathedral,
of Aalborg church, crypt
of Arhus cathedral,
Stege church, doorway
of Absalon's church, Copenhagen
3. Response to English
4. Response to
5. Response to Cistercian
Bornholm round churches of Osterlars, Olsker, Nyker and Nylars.
of Osterlars ( 1 2 3
), Nyker (1
and Nylars ( 1
2 3 ),
Odense, St. Olav's church,
Faroe Islands, (***).
Norway; 1. Norman
of St. Halvard, Royal
Chapel of St. Mary's, (ambient),
of the cathedral in Trondheim, archway
cathedral , doorway (detail)
of St. Paul's church, Bergen.
Hovedoy cloister ,
(detail) and interior (1 2) of St.
Bergen, doorway (interior) of Varhaug church,
4. Response to
Cathedral nave, Apostle's church, Bergen
Cataldo church, Pavement of Capella
Palatina in Palazzo dei Normanni,
Choir Pavements of Monreale
Poland 1.Response to
St. Anne's chapel , Malbork Castle.
2.Response to Scandinavian (c1350)
St. Mary's church, Gdansk.
Belgium 1. Romanesque
Columns and doorway of St. Basil's chapel, Bruges.
of St. Michael's church, St. Nicholas's church, Ghent.
Crypt of Gurk Cathedral.
According to Zernicki, a precursor of beak-head ornamentation
developed in Norman art, noting the parallel grooves.
(++) The parallel
grooves suggest a relationship with the form at
Deerhurst, further supporting the idea that Anglo-Norman sculpture was
(+++) There is a resemblance with
the arch forms at Odda's chapel and Turkdean, but the chancel
arch could be Anglo-Norman, the star pattern is similar
to those at
Brewardine, see (*****).
(*) Now part of Sweden, but,
at the time of construction, a
Danish province, see Liber Census Daniae, often referred to as Kong
Anglo-Saxon feature introduced into Norman archiecture by Robert
of Jumieges in 1067, the triangular design dating from Lorsch abbey.
(***) Possibly built as
early as 1200.
(****) According to "English
Romanesque Scupture, 1066-1140", by
George Zarnecki, cushion capitals are Anglo-Norman but had already been
in Anglo-Saxon buidings; one can observe the simlarity with earlier
designs, such as at Odda's chapel, Gloucestershire. He argues that they
introduced between 1066 and 1100, dating the crypt to 1089.
(*****) In the same book, Zarnecki argues that
corner capitals and
tympana were introduced between 1100 and 1140, "The doorways often had
capitals and shafts, he dates this part of St. Stephen's church
to 1120. The detail of the column at Hereford Cathedral
resembling the carving at Daglingworth, and the star patterns at
Brewardine, with their centralised geometries, again suggest an
Anglo-Saxon influence. Again, there is a similar influence at
Byton, Zarnecki notes that these abstract patterns "so typical of
carvings, survived in many works that date from the late 11th or early
12th century". The Agnus Dei symbol is unusual in that the cross slants
rather than vertically, as in
the Valviscolo cloisters, Italy, Kilpeck, Great Washbourne and Temple
Guiting, suggesting a stronger
Norman rather then
(******) This belongs to the period of Later Romanesque
sculpture, 1140-1210, discussed in Zarnecki's following book. He
dates Shobdon to around 1140,
idenifying the columns as the first works of the Herefordshire School,
the porticoe with the trefoil pattern is influenced by Anglo-Saxon
designs, but is
Anglo-Norman. The columns at the Priory church are later works of the
Herefordshire schooll, again there is a combination of Anglo-Saxon and
Norman motifs in the archway and column.