Some Major Stylistic Periods of Medieval Art and
Churches, Abbeys, Cathedrals, Basilicas and Monasteries.
England; 1. Early
archway of St. Piran's
Odda's chapel, window
(+) of St.
Mary's, Deerhurst, arcading
details 1 2 3 4, south front, inner doorways 1 2, exterior archway and sculpture in Saint
Avon, (o), Hedda
stone, Peterborough, windows
and doorway of Earl's
of Brixworth church, Northamptonshire, font
of St. Mary's, Luppitt, window (detail)
Bueno's church, Devon, window
of Wembury church, Devon, tower
of St. Margaret's church,
Peter's church, Barton-upon-Humber, tower
(random) and archway of St.
Duntisbourne Rouse, interior of Escomb church, Durham, interior of St. Mary's
church, Reculver, Kent, tower of St. Paul's
monastery, Jarrow, round tower
church, Norfolk, doorway of St. James
the Great church, Coln St. Dennis, doorway, westwork,
and spandrel of St. Michael and All
Ledbury, tower of Tewkesbury Abbey,
church house buildings of Gloucester Cathedral 1 2, doorway of St. Mary's Priory church,
Monmouth, saddleback tower of St.
Mary's church, Syde, tower of St.
Lassington, tower of St.
Swithuns church, Brookthorpe, tower of St
carving and archway
the Holy Rood church, Daglingworth, (oo), tower of St.
Duntisbourne Abbots, tower
and window of St. Michael's
church, Duntisbourne Rouse, north
doorway, south doorway (detail) and arch of St. Mary's, Great Washbourne,
(+++), cross at
church, (++++), jambs 1 2
arches 1 2,
block and pilaster strip (detail) of
St. Lawrence church, Coln Rogers, north doorway (detail)
of St. Andrew's church, Brewardine,
(+++++), doorway and cross shaft of St. Andrew's
church, Cold Aston, (++++++).
Font details 1 and 2 of St. Mary Magdelene
church, Stoke Canon, cross at St. John's
Morwenstow, cross and pillar (detail) of
Mylor Parish church.
archway near Siverton village, doorway of St. Michael and All Angels church,
columns 1 2
and interior columns 1 2 of the Priory church, Leominster, left
archway columns 1 2
right archway columns 1 2, central archway columns 1 2 and dragon form of Shobdon
west door and dragon form of St.
and All Angels, Gallilee
Pontlarge church, pillars
vault of Durham
Cathedral, nave of Tewkesbury
Worcester Cathedral, doorway
of Eckington church, doorway
Guiting Power church,
archway of Bibury
church, nave (detail)
of Leominster church, doorway of
Bredon church, doorway
church, corner capitals 1 2
3 4 of
Coln St. Denis church, doorway
of Ledbury church, north
church, arch, westwork
(**) and choir
of Hereford cathedral, corner
capital, font, vault,
corner capitals 1 2, vault
tower of Holy Cross
church, Avening, corner capital
of St. John the Baptist's church, Hatherleigh, nave
of Kilpeck church, doorway
of Lincoln cathedral, corner
Chipping Campden church, corner
capital of Garway
church, capital, archway
(++) of Tredington church, nave
capitals and archway
of Iffley church, archway of
St. Mary's, Shrewsbury, pillar, inner
and outer archways of
church (!), nave
and capital of Gloucester
of St. Mary's, Gloucester,
church, windows of St. Andrew's church, Bere
Ferrers, 1 2
view) 3 (linear), 3(cistercian,cusp), 4(cusp), (interior
view) 5 (geometric,
windows of St.
Mary's church, Luppitt, 1 2
(cusp), doorway of Kilkhampton church,
window (interior view) (linear) of
Doddisombleigh church, window (cusp) of
Lydford, window (linear) of
St. Michael de la Rupe
church, Brentor, windows, 1 (cusp,random)
2 (linear) of Saint Werburgh's
(geometric, random) of Saint Winifred's
church, Branscombe, windows 1 2
(cusp) 3 (random) of St. Mary's church,
1(cusp) 2 (cusp, cistercian) of St. Thomas's
church, Thorverton, window
(cusp) of St. Michael's,
Cadbury, tower of St. Paul de
Staverton, towers of St. Nonna's church,
and St. Bridget's church,
Bridestowe, window (linear)
and font of Holy Trinity,
arch scroll (detail)
of St. Petroc's, Inwardleigh, font
and doorway (s) of St.
Nonna's church, Alturnun,
of St. Mary the Virgin, Bratton Clovelly, tower
of St. German's church,
of St. Michael's church, Meeth, windows,
doorways (1), (2)
, archways, corner capitals (1), (2),
rib vaulting of St. German's church,
St. German, doorway and
buttressing of St.
Peter's, Revelstoke, archway
of St.Peter's church, Tiverton, window
St. Mary's church, Hemyock, font
and piscina of St. Mary's church,
capitals 1 2 3 4 of Holy Cross
church, Crediton, font (detail) of St. Michael and all Angels,
doorways 1 2 and typanum
of St. John the Baptist church and windows
of the Bishop's Palace,
Bishopsteignton, font of All Saint's
church, Eggesford, archway details 1 2
of St. Mary's church,
High Bickington, font and window of St. Pancras's church, Exeter, doorway and corner
of All Saints church, North Cerney, font details 1, 2, 3, 4 of St.
Peter's church, Rendcomb,
doorway with diaper
pattern, volute capital , font details 1 2 3
(!!!!) of St. Peter's church, Southrop,
and tower of Temple church, Temple,
Cornwall, archway (detail),
corner capitals 1, 2
window (linear) of St. Michael's
church, Shebbear, corner capitals 1 2 of St. Michael's church,
Rouse, archway , pillars 1, 2 and window (linear)of St. Mary's
church, Great Barrington,
and corner capitals 1 2 of St. Peters church, Little
details 1 2 3 4 and piscina
of St.Michael's church, Spreyton, font of
St. Michael and All Angels church,
details 1 2 of
Benedict's church, Buckland Brewer, archway details 1 2 and font of All Saints church,
Clovelly, font of St. Matthew's
church, Butterleigh, archway details 1 2 of St. James'
archway details 1 2
of All Hallows church, Woolfardisworthy, font
of All Saints church, Merton,
of St. Michael's church, Dowdeswell, archway
of St.Mary's church, East
archway details 1 2 of St.
Giles's church, Ashleigh, entrance
archway details 1 2 3, chancel archway
details 1 2 3
and window (exterior
view) of St. Mary's church, Lower
Swell, archway details 1 2 of
Mary's, church, Upper Swell, archway (detail), chancel boss, chancel pillar with dragon
capital and carvings 1 2 of
Elkstone church, (##), westwork ,(**),of
Tewkesbury abbey, trefoil capital
of St. Mary's Priory church, Monmouth, doorway
and pillars of St.
Leonard Stanley, cushion capitals 1 2 of Gloucester Cathedral crypt, (****),
and corner capital of St. Stephen's
Moreton Valence, corner capitals of
corner capital, tympanum
Mary's church, Byton (*****), tympanum
church, Gloucester, tympanum
Shobdon church, archway and column of the Priory church, Leominster,
Mary's, Little Washourne, font at St.
Nectan's church, Stoke, doorway
(detail) and cross
of Mylor parish church,
(********), capital, archway and column
of St. Mary's
church,Great Barrington, doorway, moulding and tympanum
of St. Peter's church, Little Barrington,
tympanum (detail) of St. Andrew's church, Brewardine, doorway, tympanum
and corner capital
of St. Andrew's church, Cold Aston, stars
and capital fragments of St. Margaret's
6. Lancet (Early English)
Cathedral, nave of Lincoln
Cathedral, abbeys of Byland, Rievaulx
. Yorkshire, lancet
windows of York
Dubricius's, Porlock, arcade
of Sevenhampton church, windows
of Castle Combe
of Buckland abbey, lancet window of
St. Andrew's church, Bere Ferrers,
window of Tintagel church, window of St. Swithuns church, Cornwall, window of St.Mary's, Luppitt,
window of St.
Petroc's church, Lydford, window of de la Rupe church, window
of St. Michael's,
Cadbury, windows 1 2 (trefoil) of St. Mary's church,
Poltimore, buttresses 1 2 (trefoil) of St. Mary's,
Bickleigh, doorway of St. John the
Baptist Church, Bere Regis, Dorset, window (s) and arcade
Exeter Cathedral, St. John the Baptist's
church, Hatherleigh, font of St.
Peter's church, Southrop,
window and piscina, of St. Mary's church,
Great Washbourne, font and piscinas 1 2 of St.
of Antioch church , Alderton, doorway
of King Charles the Martyr's church, Falmouth, piscinas
St. Mary's church, Silverton, windows
of St. Michael and All Angels church,
Frithelstock, piscina of
St. Matthew's church, Butterleigh, font of
St. Michael and All Angels church, Meeth, font of All
Hallows church, Woolfardisworthy, lower archway
of St. Mary's church, Bibury, arches 1 2 of Hailes
Abbey, buttress of Hereford
Cathedral, trefoil plate tracery of
Winchester Cathedral, lancet window of
St. George's church, Brisop, lancet windows 1 2 3 of Salisbury
Cathedral, lancet window of Boyton church,
arch form of Hartland Abbey (!!), arch and tower of St.
Nectan's church, Stoke, arches 1 2 (detail), pillar,
lancet windows 1 2 and circles
of Blackfriars Abbey, Gloucester, (!!!).
7. Response to
Choir of Lincoln
Cathedral, chapterhouse of Westminster
of Salisbury cathedral, window
detail of Boyton church, arch
detail of Sevenhampton church, cloister
window of Exeter cathedral, window
Michael's, Buckland, cloister
of Gloucester cathedral, arch detail of
Culhumpton church, window of St.
Mary's, Rewe, window (interior
view)of St.Petroc's church, Lydford, window
of St. Mary's church, Huxham,
(interior view) of St. Mary's,
Poltimore, windows 1 2 3 4 5 of St.
Peter's church, Tiverton,
window of St.
Ida the Green , Ide, window
of St. Mary's, Upton Hellions, balustrade
and turret of St. John
Baptist church, Plymtree, font
(random) of St.Mary's church, Great Washbourne, font (random) of St. Mary's
Black Torrington, balustrade of King
Charles the Martyr's
church, Falmouth, balustrade of St.
and All Angels church, Frithelstock, fragment
at Hailes Abbey, quatrefoils at
Gloucester Cathedral, window and
archway of St. Mary's Church,
Ross-on-Wye, window of St. Lawrence
church, Stroud, (plan), tympanun at
Hartland Abbey, (*******)..
Etheldreda's church window, London, Merton College
Chapel east and north windows, (#),
of Exeter cathedral, Bere Ferrers
church window (interior view) (detail),
Nonna's church, Altarnun.
window (s), (detail), of Gulval church,
Penzance. St. Ives church,
Cornwall, window of Kilkhampton
church, doorway (detail)
of St. Mary's, Stoke Cannon, window of
St. Mary's church,
(interior view), windows 1
2 of St. John's church, Broadclyst, window of St.
Mary's church, Poltimore,
window (detail) (interior
view) of St. Mary's
church, Bickleigh, windows 1 2 of
St. Mary's church, Upton
Pyne, window of St. John the Baptist church, Netherexe, doorway of St. Andrew's church, Coln Rogers.
10. Response to Rayonnant
Boyton Church rose
window , Wiltshire, St. Mary's window,
Cheltenham, window of St. Peter's church,
arcade wall and vault
of Gloucester cathedral, east
Mary's, Frampton on Severn, window
of St. Andrew's church, Moretonhampstead,
font of St. Michael's
church, Dowdeswell, spade design, fan and spade
vaulting (detail) of St. Peter's church,
Winchcombe, outbuilding of Sudeley Castle, fan vaulting, archway
and window of St. John the Baptist
Cirencester, outbuilding at Bourton
Hill, spade design and window of St. Mary's church,
and shield design at Greyfriars
church, Gloucester, fan vaulting of
Beverston chapel. .
Chevron pattern of St.
Mary's church, Monmouth.
Windows, 1 2, and doorways, 1 2 of St. Thomas's church,
detail) of Tintern Abbey,
windows of Abbey
windows of Tintern Abbey.
Round tower at
Rock of Cashel, round tower
Scotland; 1. Lancet
of St. Kentigern, lancet
windows of Glasgow Cathedral
spade design at Rosslyn chapel, Roslin.
and crypt pillars
Gotland; 1. Romanesque
Visby, Gotland, cloister
in Roma, Gotland.
(*) 2. Response to
Vault, doorway (cusp)
(cusp) of Helge And, crossing
of St. Lars, St. Katarina,
window of St. Nicolaus,
St. Clemens, defensive
walls in Visby, Gotland.
3. Regional Gothic
of Tofta, doorway
churches in Gotland
church, Bornholm, crypt
of Viborg cathedral,
of Aalborg church, crypt
of Arhus cathedral,
Stege church, doorway
of Absalon's church, Copenhagen
3. Response to English
4. Response to
5. Response to Cistercian
Bornholm round churches of Osterlars, Olsker, Nyker and Nylars.
of Osterlars ( 1 2 3
), Nyker (1
and Nylars ( 1
2 3 ),
Odense, St. Olav's church,
Faroe Islands, (***).
Norway; 1. Norman
of St. Halvard, Royal
Chapel of St. Mary's, (ambient),
of the cathedral in Trondheim, archway
cathedral , doorway (detail)
of St. Paul's church, Bergen.
Hovedoy cloister ,
(detail) and interior (1 2) of St.
Bergen, doorway (interior) of Varhaug church,
4. Response to
Cathedral nave, Apostle's church, Bergen
Cataldo church, Pavement of Capella
Palatina in Palazzo dei Normanni,
Choir Pavements of Monreale
Poland 1.Response to
St. Anne's chapel , Malbork Castle.
2.Response to Scandinavian (c1350)
St. Mary's church, Gdansk.
Belgium 1. Romanesque
Columns and doorway of St. Basil's chapel, Bruges.
of St. Michael's church, St. Nicholas's church, Ghent.
Crypt of Gurk Cathedral.
According to M. Hearn, the sculpture is influenced by Carolingian
designs, see also (!!!!) here. In the
exterior archway, the reveal is recessed
respond, a feature which Clapham in "English Romanesque Architecture
before the Conquest" claims are more common in Anglo-Saxon
churches of the north of England. The arcading exhibits regular bands
with both 3 attached shafts, which Clapham mentions are used at Worth,
Clayton and Wittering, and 1 attached shaft, also used at Worth, and at
Wing, in the arch intersections. There is slight recessing in the
a triangular form above the south front doorway, although, Clapham
notes there is greater recessing and the use of triangular forms in the
arcading at Earl's Barton, Barton-on-Humber and Deerhurst. Pilaster
strips, as at Colne Rogers in Gloucestershire, are used on the south
corner, which are, unusually, buttress like, horizontal jambs are used
on both inner doorways, as at Escomb and Odda's chapel, and there is an
in the doorways along the axial line of the church. Unlike Earl's
Barton, there are no herringbone networks along the walls. There is a
double splay window on the south front. Clapham dates the church to the
early 10th century, the later Anglo-Saxon period, and after the
Carolingian period, (780-900).
(oo) The Y-shape of the "Christ in
Majesty" sculpture is typical of the Anglo-Saxon period.
According to George Zarnecki, a precursor of beak-head ornamentation
developed in Norman art, noting the parallel grooves.
(++) The parallel
grooves suggest a relationship with the form at
Deerhurst, further supporting the idea that Anglo-Norman sculpture was
Anglo-Saxon art, Zarnecki mentions this connection in "English
Romanesque Scupture, 1066-1140"
(+++) There is a resemblance with
the arch forms at Odda's chapel and Turkdean, but the chancel
arch could be Anglo-Norman, the star pattern and arch
is similar to those at
Brewardine, see (*****).
(++++) The cross cuts out a star pattern,
similar to that at Brewardine, suggesting an Anglo-Saxon influence, see
also (********), again there is a diagonal
relationship, parallel to the Cornish coast, and a further diagonal
with the north west coast of France, passing through the Scilly Isles
and the south of
see also (++++++) here.
(+++++) The pilaster strip in the north wall at Coln
mentioned in Clapham's "English Romanesque Architecture before the
Conquest", noting that
usually terminated by a base block, which is absent here. The interior
arches of the north and south walls, exhibit a typical use of jambs,
the shape of the north arch is unusual. The jamb with respond in the
exterior porch doorway is terminated by a base block, though the corner
see (*****), the chancel jamb exhibits a beaded moulding, a Norman
feature, similar to Mylor, see (********) and Cury. The
jambs of the
interior south doorway are asymmetric, one being unusually short and
possibly broken. The jambs and archway of the north door at
Brewardine are typically Anglo-Saxon. The 6-leaf pattern of the star
designs might suggest that this form might occur with an even number of
Anglo-Saxon art. In even sided polygons, the opposite sides are
parallel, in which case the method of harmonic variations variations
doesn't work. For an
even number, one can instead consider bitangent degenerations with the
tangent lines all passing through a point, in which case the tangent
lines do not pair
into parallels, see also (*********).
(++++++) The use of jambs and a narrow archway at Cold Aston is
Anglo-Saxon, see also
(+++++), the star or snowflake pattern on the tympanum band might
connected to the main Norman design of the church. The cross shaft has
pattern, similar to the fragments at St. Oswald's Priory, see
Use of beakhead ornamentation occurs in the outer archway, alternating
orders in the inner archway, as at Malmesbury Abbey.
tympanum and capitals are dated to about 1180 in Jerry Hibbert's
leaflet on St. Peter's church, which agrees with Zarnecki's and the
dating of the font. For more information on the volute capital, see
but this is probably a late transitional version, (c1180; Zarnicki's
also in leaflet). The diaper pattern is typically Norman with
intersecting diagonals, demonstrating the aesthetic of fragmentation.
The details of
the font depict a square buckle, a spandrel between two arches, and the
figure of Prudentia holding a staff with a cross. The spandrel form
in conjunction with Anglo-Saxon architecture, with a circular buckle of
the same date appearing at Elkstone church, 1180 (Zarnecki),
(!!) Similar to the arch forms
at Hailes Abbey, see (!!!).
(!!!) The trefoil headed windows are
similar to Hailes Abbey, while the interior lancet is typical of the
period, the broader window has a slight apex, is
claimed to be a lancet, and is similar to early uses of the lancet form
at Monreale, Sicily, see also (!) here. The pillar
might be a development of the
period, with a connection to water. The use of
circles in a cross
is typical of the later Geometric style in England, this could be an
use of this idea, dating the Abbey to about 1240.
(*) Now part of Sweden, but,
at the time of construction, a
Danish province, see Liber Census Daniae, often referred to as Kong
Anglo-Saxon feature introduced into Norman archiecture by Robert
of Jumieges in 1067, the triangular design dating from Lorsch abbey.
(***) Possibly built as
early as 1200.
(****) According to "English
Romanesque Scupture, 1066-1140", by Zarnecki, cushion capitals are
Anglo-Norman but had already been
in Anglo-Saxon buidings; one can observe the simlarity with earlier
designs, such as at Odda's chapel, Gloucestershire. He argues that they
introduced between 1066 and 1100, dating the crypt to 1089.
(*****) In the same book, Zarnecki argues that
corner capitals and
tympana were introduced between 1100 and 1140, "The doorways often had
capitals and shafts, he dates this part of St. Stephen's church
to 1120. The detail of the column at Hereford Cathedral
resembling the carving at Daglingworth, and the star patterns at
Brewardine, with their centralised geometries, again suggest an
Anglo-Saxon influence. Again, there is a similar influence at
Byton, Zarnecki notes that these abstract patterns "so typical of
carvings, survived in many works that date from the late 11th or early
12th century". The Agnus Dei symbol is unusual in that the cross slants
rather than vertically, as in
the Valviscolo cloisters, Italy, Kilpeck, Great Washbourne and Temple
Guiting, suggesting a stronger
Norman rather then
(******) This belongs to the period of Later Romanesque
sculpture, 1140-1210, discussed in Zarnecki's following book. He
dates Shobdon to around 1140,
idenifying the columns as the first works of the Herefordshire School,
the porticoe with the trefoil pattern is influenced by Anglo-Saxon
designs, but is
Anglo-Norman. The columns at the Priory church are later works of the
Herefordshire school, again there is a combination of Anglo-Saxon and
Norman motifs in the archway and column.
(*******) Compare with the design in the cloister at Salisbury
(********) The chevron pattern, with a beaded moulding along the
diagonals, is a copy of the design at Cury,
suggesting a relationship
between the 2 locations.
The diagonals in the cross of the archway is also a Norman feature,
similar to that at Byton and Egloskerry, with a
connection to the symbol of the
Knight's Templar. The diagonal passes between these three churches,
roughly parallel to the North coast of
(*********) The corner capitals in the south door at Brewardine are
typically Norman, the 11-leaf pattern of the star designs in the
form can occur with an odd or prime number of points
in Norman art. In the case of curves with odd degree, one can use
the method of harmonic
variations to investigate the notion of genus of
a curve, see also (+++++) The Norman corner capitals at Cold Aston are
of the volute type, see
(*******) here, but, unlike
at Brewardine, the tympanum has star designs, with an even number of 4
points, set on a diagonal square. Both star
designs could be reminiscent of snowflakes. There is a cushion corner
capital fragment at Alderton, see also (****), the star design has 8
and is again set on a diagonal square, showing that the Normans used an
even or odd number of points in such designs.
extensive analysis of the linear style in England is given by Bony,
noting the influence of Norman art. In the east window, one can see
aesthetic of fragmentation and the use of Y-tracery. In the north
window, one can see linearity reflected in the use of the lancet form,
but there is
also a combination with the use of trefoils, a feature of Early English
designs, and influenced by Anglo-Saxon designs.
(##) Zarnecki dates the
boss in the chancel vault to 1180, it depicts a circular buckle with 2
animal heads and 8 points. The dragon head also has 4
points on either side of the mouth, the grooving suggestive of
Anglo-Saxon art, see (++), but the points are also similar to those
used in Norman
art, for example at Mylor, see (********) and (++++++) here. The position
the buckle suggests a further link with the capital, possibly
an owl, the beak in the middle, on the right side of the main doorway,
pointed to by the right hand of the father in the tympanum.