Some Major Stylistic Periods of Medieval Art and Architecture



                                                                                 Churches, Abbeys, Cathedrals, Basilicas and Monasteries.

     

England; 1. Early Christian                     (c500-600)                       archway of St. Piran's oratory.
              2. Anglo-Saxon                       (c450-1066)                     archway of Odda's chapelwindow and archways (detail) (+) of  St. Mary's, Deerhurst, arcading
                                                                                                      details 1 2 3 4, south front, inner doorways 1 2, exterior archway and sculpture in Saint Laurence,
                                                                                                      Bradford on Avon, (o), Hedda stone, Peterborough, windows and doorway of Earl's Barton church
                                                                                                      and windows of Brixworth church, Northamptonshire, font of St. Mary's, Luppitt, window (detail)
                                                                                                      of St. Bueno's church, Devon, window of Wembury church, Devon, tower of St. Margaret's church,
                                                                                                      Bagendon, tower of St. Peter's church, Barton-upon-Humber, tower (random) and archway of St.
                                                                                                      Michael's church, Duntisbourne Rouse, interior of Escomb church, Durham, interior of St. Mary's
                                                                                                      church, Reculver, Kent, tower of St. Paul's monastery, Jarrow, round tower of Burnham Deepdale
                                                                                                      church, Norfolk, doorway of St. James the Great church, Coln St. Dennis, doorway, westwork,
                                                                                                      archway and spandrel of St. Michael and All Angels, Ledbury, tower of Tewkesbury Abbey,
                                                                                                      church house buildings of Gloucester Cathedral 1 2, doorway of  St. Mary's Priory church,
                                                                                                      Monmouth, saddleback tower of St. Mary's church, Syde, tower of St. Oswalds church,
                                                                                                      Lassington, tower of St. Swithuns church, Brookthorpe, tower of St Margaret's church, Bagendon,
                                                                                                      carving and archway at the Holy Rood church, Daglingworth, (oo),  tower of St. Peter's church,
                                                                                                      Duntisbourne Abbots, tower and window of St. Michael's church, Duntisbourne Rouse, north
                                                                                                      doorway, south doorway (detail) and arch of St. Mary's, Great Washbourne, (+++), cross at
                                                                                                      Mylor parish church, (++++), jambs 1 2 3 4, arches 1 2, base block and pilaster strip (detail) of
                                                                                                      St. Lawrence church, Coln Rogers, north doorway (detail) of St. Andrew's church, Brewardine,
                                                                                                      (+++++), doorway and cross shaft of St. Andrew's church, Cold Aston, (++++++).
                3. Celtic                                 (c500-1150)                      Font details 1 and 2 of St. Mary Magdelene church, Stoke Canon, cross at St. John's church,
                                                                                                       Morwenstow, cross and pillar (detail) of Mylor Parish church.
               4. Romanesque                      (c1100-1200)                    archway near Siverton village, doorway of St. Michael and All Angels church, Meeth, exterior
                                                                                                       columns 1 2 and interior columns 1 2 of the Priory church, Leominster, left archway columns 1 2 ,
                                                                                                       right archway columns 1 2, central archway columns 1 2 and dragon form of Shobdon church, see
                                                                                                      (******).
               5. Norman                             (c1066-1180)                    west door and dragon form of St. Michael and All Angels, Gallilee Chapel, Durham Cathedral,
                                                                                                      north door of Stanley Pontlarge church, pillars of  Pershore Abbey,
                                                                                                      vault of  Durham Cathedral, nave of Tewkesbury Abbey, crossing vault of
                                                                                                      Worcester Cathedral, doorway of Eckington church, doorway of Guiting Power church,
                                                                                                      doorway(s) of Withington church, upper archway of Bibury church,  nave (detail) and doorway
                                                                                                      of Leominster church, doorway of English Bicknor, doorway of Bredon church, doorway
                                                                                                      of Westwell church, corner capitals 1 2 3 4 of Coln St. Denis church, doorway of Coln St. Aldwyns
                                                                                                      church, doorway of Ledbury church, north wall of Rock church, arch, westwork (**) and choir arcades
                                                                                                      of Hereford cathedral, corner capital, font, vault, corner capitals 1 2vault and tower of Holy Cross
                                                                                                      church, Avening,  corner capital of  St. John the Baptist's church, Hatherleigh, nave of St. Mary's,
                                                                                                      Kempley, doorway of Kilpeck church, doorway of Lincoln cathedral, corner butresses of
                                                                                                      Chipping Campden church, corner capital of Garway church, capital, archway and dragon form
                                                                                                      (++) of Tredington church, nave and pillars of Peterborough cathedral, corner capitals and archway
                                                                                                      of Iffley church, archway of St. Mary's, Shrewsbury, pillar, inner and outer archways of
                                                                                                       Morwenstow church (!), nave and capital of Gloucester cathedral, doorway of St. Mary's, Gloucester,
                                                                                                       window of Boddington church, windows  of  St. Andrew's church, Bere Ferrers, 1 2
                                                                                                       (interior view) 3 (linear), 3(cistercian,cusp), 4(cusp), (interior view)  5 (geometric, random),
                                                                                                       windows of St. Mary's church, Luppitt, 1 2 (linear) 3 (cusp), doorway of Kilkhampton church,
                                                                                                       window (interior view) (linear) of Doddisombleigh church, window (cusp) of St. Petroc's,
                                                                                                       Lydford, window (linear) of St. Michael de la Rupe church, Brentor, windows, 1 (cusp,random)
                                                                                                       2 (linear) of Saint Werburgh's church, Wembury, window (geometric, random) of Saint Winifred's
                                                                                                       church, Branscombe, windows 1 2 (cusp) 3 (random) of St. Mary's church, Rewe, windows
                                                                                                       1(cusp) 2 (cusp, cistercian) of St. Thomas's church, Thorverton, window (cusp) of St. Michael's,
                                                                                                       Cadbury, tower of St. Paul de Leon church, Staverton, towers of St. Nonna's church, Bradstone,
                                                                                                       and St. Bridget's church, Bridestowe,  window (linear) and font of Holy Trinity, Drewsteignton,
                                                                                                       arch scroll (detail) of St. Petroc's, Inwardleigh,  font and doorway (s) of St. Nonna's church, Alturnun,
                                                                                                       font of St. Mary the Virgin, Bratton Clovelly, tower of  St. German's church, Germansweek, tower
                                                                                                       of St. Michael's church, Meeth, windows, doorways (1), (2) , archways, corner capitals (1), (2),
                                                                                                       column, stringcourse and cross rib vaulting of St. German's church, St. German, doorway and
                                                                                                       buttressing of  St. Peter's, Revelstoke, archway of St.Peter's church, Tiverton, window (linear) of
                                                                                                       St. Mary's church, Hemyock, font and piscina of St. Mary's church, Cheriton Bishop, corner
                                                                                                       capitals 1 2 3 4 of Holy Cross church, Crediton, font (detail) of St. Michael and all Angels, Exeter,
                                                                                                      doorways 1 2 and typanum of St. John the Baptist church and windows of the Bishop's Palace,
                                                                                                      Bishopsteignton, font of All Saint's church, Eggesford, archway details 1 2 of St. Mary's church,
                                                                                                      High Bickington,  font and window of St. Pancras's church, Exeter, doorway and corner capital
                                                                                                      of All Saints church, North Cerney, font details 1, 2, 3, 4 of St. Peter's church, Rendcomb,
                                                                                                      doorway with diaper pattern, volute capitalfont details 1 2 3 (!!!!) of St. Peter's church, Southrop,
                                                                                                      archway and tower of Temple church, Temple, Cornwall, archway (detail), corner capitals 1, 2 and
                                                                                                      window (linear) of St. Michael's church, Shebbear, corner capitals 1 2 of St. Michael's church,
                                                                                                      Duntisbourne Rouse, archway , pillars 1, 2 and window (linear)of St. Mary's church, Great Barrington,
                                                                                                      archway and corner capitals 1 2 of St. Peters church, Little Barrington, font details 1 2 3 4 and piscina
                                                                                                      of St.Michael's church, Spreyton, font of St. Michael and All Angels church, Frithelstock,  archway
                                                                                                      details 1 2 of St. Benedict's church, Buckland Brewer, archway details 1 2 and font of All Saints church,
                                                                                                      Clovelly, font of St. Matthew's church, Butterleigh, archway details 1 2 of St. James' church, Parkham,
                                                                                                      archway details 1 2 of All Hallows church, Woolfardisworthy, font of All Saints church, Merton,
                                                                                                      arch fragment of St. Michael's church, Dowdeswell, archway of St.Mary's church, East Worlington,
                                                                                                      archway details 1 2 of St. Giles's church, Ashleigh,  entrance archway details 1 2 3chancel archway
                                                                                                      details 1 2 3 and  window (exterior view) of St. Mary's church, Lower Swell, archway details 1 2 of
                                                                                                      St. Mary's, church, Upper Swell, archway (detail), chancel boss, chancel pillar with dragon form,
                                                                                                      capital and carvings 1 2 of Elkstone church, (##), westwork ,(**),of Tewkesbury abbey, trefoil capital
                                                                                                      of Winchester Cathedral, doorway of St. Mary's Priory church, Monmouth, doorway and pillars of St.
                                                                                                      Swithun's church, Leonard Stanley, cushion capitals 1 2 of Gloucester Cathedral crypt, (****),
                                                                                                      tympanum and corner capital of St. Stephen's church, Moreton Valence, corner capitals of Hereford
                                                                                                      cathedral, corner capital, tympanum of St. Mary's church, Byton (*****), tympanum of St. Nicholas'
                                                                                                      church, Gloucester, tympanum of Shobdon church, archway and column of the Priory church, Leominster,
                                                                                                      (******), butresses of St. Mary's, Little Washourne, font at St. Nectan's church, Stoke, doorway
                                                                                                      (detail) and cross of  Mylor parish church, (********), capitalarchway and column of St. Mary's
                                                                                                      church,Great Barrington, doorway, moulding and tympanum of St. Peter's church, Little Barrington,
                                                                                                      tympanum (detail) of St. Andrew's church, Brewardine, doorway, tympanum and corner capital
                                                                                                      of St. Andrew's church, Cold Aston, stars and capital fragments of St. Margaret's church, Alderton,
                                                                                                      (*********).
               6. Lancet (Early English)          (c1180-1275)                  Wells Cathedral, nave of Lincoln Cathedral, abbeys of BylandRievaulx and Whitby in
                                                                                            .         Yorkshire, lancet windows of York Cathedral, nave and lancet windows of Salisbury
                                                                                                      cathedral, piscina in  Saint  Dubricius's, Porlock, arcade and colonettes of 
                                                                                                      Worcester Cathedral, windows of  Sevenhampton church, windows of Castle Combe
                                                                                                      church, outbuilding of Buckland abbey, lancet window of St. Andrew's church, Bere Ferrers,
                                                                                                       window of Tintagel church, window of St. Swithuns church, Cornwall, window of St.Mary's, Luppitt,
                                                                                                       window of St. Petroc's church, Lydford, window of de la Rupe church, window of St. Michael's,
                                                                                                       Cadbury, windows 1 2 (trefoil) of St. Mary's church, Poltimore, buttresses 1 2 (trefoil) of St. Mary's,
                                                                                                       Bickleigh, doorway of St. John the Baptist Church, Bere Regis, Dorset, window (s) and arcade  of
                                                                                                       Exeter Cathedral, St. John the Baptist's church, Hatherleigh, font of St. Peter's church, Southrop,
                                                                                                       window and piscina, of St. Mary's church, Great Washbourne, font and piscinas 1 2 of St. Margaret
                                                                                                       of Antioch church , Alderton, doorway of King Charles the Martyr's church, Falmouth, piscinas of
                                                                                                       St. Mary's church, Silverton, windows of St. Michael and All Angels church, Frithelstock, piscina of
                                                                                                       St. Matthew's church, Butterleigh, font of St. Michael and All Angels church, Meeth, font of All
                                                                                                       Hallows church, Woolfardisworthy, lower archway of St. Mary's church, Bibury, arches 1 2 of Hailes
                                                                                                       Abbey, buttress of Hereford Cathedral, trefoil plate tracery of Winchester Cathedral, lancet window of
                                                                                                       St. George's church, Brisop, lancet windows 1 2 3 of Salisbury Cathedral, lancet window of Boyton church,
                                                                                                       arch form of Hartland Abbey (!!), arch and tower of St. Nectan's church, Stoke, arches 1 2 (detail), pillar,
                                                                                                       lancet windows 1 2 and circles of Blackfriars Abbey, Gloucester, (!!!).
               7. Response to Geometric        (c1240-1280)                  Choir of Lincoln Cathedral, chapterhouse of Westminster Abbey, cloister of Salisbury cathedral, window
                                                                                                      detail of Boyton church, arch detail of Sevenhampton church, cloister window of Exeter cathedral, window
                                                                                                      of St. Michael's, Buckland, cloister of Gloucester cathedral, arch detail of Culhumpton church, window of St.
                                                                                                      Mary's, Rewe, window (interior view)of St.Petroc's church, Lydford, window of St. Mary's church, Huxham,
                                                                                                      Devon, window (interior view) of St. Mary's, Poltimore, windows 1 2 3 4 5 of St. Peter's church, Tiverton,
                                                                                                      window of St. Ida the Green , Ide,  window of  St. Mary's, Upton Hellions, balustrade and turret of St. John
                                                                                                      the Baptist church, Plymtree, font (random) of St.Mary's church, Great Washbourne, font (random) of St. Mary's
                                                                                                      church, Black Torrington, balustrade of  King Charles the Martyr's church, Falmouth, balustrade of St. Michael
                                                                                                      and All Angels church, Frithelstock, fragment at Hailes Abbey, quatrefoils at Gloucester Cathedral, window and
                                                                                                      archway of St. Mary's Church, Ross-on-Wye, window of St. Lawrence church, Stroud, (plan), tympanun at
                                                                                                      Hartland Abbey, (*******)..
               8. Linear                                  (c1280-1300)                  St. Etheldreda's church window, London, Merton College Chapel east and north windows, (#),  Oxford,
                                                                                                      Buckland Abbey, cloister window (s) of Exeter cathedral, Bere Ferrers church window (interior view) (detail),
                                                                                                      window of St. Nonna's church, Altarnun.
               9. Cusp                                    (c1280)                           window (s), (detail), of Gulval church, Penzance.  St. Ives church, Cornwall, window of Kilkhampton
                                                                                                      church, doorway (detail) of St. Mary's, Stoke Cannon, window of St. Mary's church, Silverton
                                                                                                      (interior view), windows 1 2 of St. John's church, Broadclyst, window of St. Mary's church, Poltimore,
                                                                                                       window (detail) (interior view) of St. Mary's church, Bickleigh, windows 1 2 of St. Mary's church, Upton
                                                                                                       Pyne, window of St. John the Baptist church, Netherexe, doorway of St. Andrew's church, Coln Rogers.
               10. Response to Rayonnant        (c1280-1300)                  Boyton Church rose window , Wiltshire, St. Mary's window, Cheltenham, window of  St. Peter's church,
                                                                                                        Bramford Speke.
               11. Perpendicular                       (c1380-1520)                  East window, cloister window(s), arcade wall and vault of Gloucester cathedral, east window of
                                                                                                        St. Mary's, Frampton on Severn,  window of St. Andrew's church, Moretonhampstead,
                                                                                                        font of St. Michael's church, Dowdeswell, spade design, fan and spade vaulting (detail) of St. Peter's church,
                                                                                                        Winchcombe, outbuilding of Sudeley Castle, fan vaulting, archway and window of St. John the Baptist church,
                                                                                                        Cirencester, outbuilding at Bourton Hill,  spade design and window of St. Mary's church, Painswick, spade
                                                                                                        and shield design at Greyfriars church, Gloucester, fan vaulting of Beverston chapel. .
                                                                                                     
 Wales;     1.  Norman                              (c1066-1180)                  Chevron pattern of St. Mary's church, Monmouth.
                2.  Romanesque                      (c1066-1180)                   Windows, 1 2, and doorways,  1 2 of St. Thomas's church, Monmouth.
                3.  Lancet                                (c1180-1275)                  Nave (arch detail) of Tintern Abbey, Llanthony Priory, lancet windows of Abbey Dore.
                4. Geometric                           (c1240-1280)                  Clearstorey windows of Tintern Abbey.

Ireland      1. Anglo-Saxon                      (c850-1150)                    Round tower at Rock of Cashel, round tower of Monasterboice.      

Scotland; 1. Lancet                                 (c1180-1275)                  Crypt of St. Kentigern, lancet windows of Glasgow Cathedral
               2. Perpendicular                       (c1380-1520)                  spade design at Rosslyn chapel, Roslin.

Sweden:  1. Romanesque                        (c1100-1250)                  Apse and crypt pillars of Lund cathedral
               2. Regional Gothic                    (c1250-1400)                 Storkyran interior, Stockholm    

Gotland;  1. Romanesque                        (c1100-1250)                  Tower of St. Lars, St. Drottens in Visby, Gotland, cloister pavement in Roma, Gotland.
  (*)         2. Response to Geometric/       (c1200-1300)                 Vaultdoorway (cusp) and window (cusp) of Helge And, crossing and doorway of St. Lars, St. Katarina
                   English                                                                         rose window of St. Nicolaus, St. Clemensdefensive walls in Visby, Gotland.          
               3. Regional Gothic                    (c1250-1400)                 Doorway(s) and window of Tofta, doorway and window of Masterby, more doorway(s) of Bro
                                                                                                      churches in Gotland

Denmark; 1. Romanesque                       (c1100-1200)                 Doorway of Osterlars church, Ostermarie church, Bornholm, crypt of Viborg cathedral,
                                                                                                     doorway and pillar of Ribe cathedral, doorway of Aalborg church, crypt of Arhus cathedral,
                                                                                                     Roskilde cathedral
                2. Norman                              (c1100-1180)                 Stege church, doorway of Helsingborg churchpillar of Absalon's church, Copenhagen
                3. Response to English             (c1200-1300)                Sakskobing church
                4. Response to Lancet             (c1200-1300)                Vejle church
                5. Response to Cistercian        (c1250-1300)                 Bornholm round churches of Osterlars, OlskerNyker and Nylars.
                6. Regional Gothic                   (c1350)                          Frescoes of Osterlars ( 1 2 3 ), Nyker (1 2 3) and Nylars ( 1 2 3 ), Bornholm.
                7. Regional Scandinavian         (c1250-1400)                 Elmelund church, Svendborg church, Nakskov church, Odense cathedral, Vor Frue Kirke,
                                                                                                     Odense, St. Olav's church, Faroe Islands, (***).
Norway;   1. Norman                              (c1100-1180)                Cathedral of St. Halvard, Royal Chapel of St. Mary's, (ambient), Oslo, Archbishop's Palace
                                                                                                     and archway of the cathedral in Trondheim, archway and pillar of Stavanger cathedral doorway (detail)
                                                                                                     of  St. Paul's church, Bergen.
                 2. Cistercian                           (c1150)                          Hovedoy cloister , Oslo
                 3. Romanesque                       (c1100-1200)                Doorway (detail) and interior (1 2) of  St. Mary's Church, Bergen, doorway (interior) of Varhaug church, Stavanger.
                 4. Response to English            (c1200-1300)                Trondheim Cathedral nave, Apostle's church, Bergen
                   

Sicily;        1. Norman                              (c1070-1180)                Pavement of  San Cataldo church, Pavement of Capella Palatina in Palazzo dei Normanni,
                                                                                                     Choir Pavements of Monreale Cathedral.

Poland      1.Response to Geometric         (c1280-)                         St. Anne's chapel , Malbork Castle.
                   (Cusp)
                 2.Response to Scandinavian     (c1350)                          St. Mary's church, Gdansk.
Belgium     1. Romanesque                        (c1134-1139)                 Columns and  doorway of St. Basil's chapel, Bruges.  
                 2. Regional Gothic                   (c1250-1400)                 Vault of St. Michael's church, St. Nicholas's church, Ghent. 
Austria      1. Romanesque                        (c1140-1200)                 Crypt of Gurk Cathedral.

(o)            According to  M. Hearn, the sculpture is influenced by Carolingian designs, see also (!!!!) here. In the exterior archway, the reveal is recessed
                 from the respond, a feature which Clapham in "English Romanesque Architecture before the Conquest" claims are more common in Anglo-Saxon
                 churches of the north of England. The arcading exhibits regular bands with both 3 attached shafts, which Clapham mentions are used at Worth,
                 Clayton and Wittering, and 1 attached shaft, also used at Worth, and at Wing, in the arch intersections. There is slight recessing in the arcading and
                 a triangular form above the south front doorway, although, Clapham notes there is greater recessing and the use of triangular forms in the
                 arcading at Earl's Barton, Barton-on-Humber and Deerhurst. Pilaster strips, as at Colne Rogers in Gloucestershire, are used on the south front
                 corner, which are, unusually, buttress like, horizontal jambs are used on both inner doorways, as at Escomb and Odda's chapel, and there is an
                 asymmetry in the doorways along the axial line of the church. Unlike Earl's Barton, there are no herringbone networks along the walls. There is a
                 double splay window on the south front. Clapham dates the church to the early 10th century, the later Anglo-Saxon period, and after the
                 Carolingian period, (780-900).

(oo)          The Y-shape of the "Christ in Majesty" sculpture is typical of the Anglo-Saxon period.          

(+)           According to George Zarnecki, a precursor of beak-head ornamentation developed in Norman art, noting the parallel grooves.

(++)         The parallel grooves suggest a relationship with the form at Deerhurst, further supporting the idea that Anglo-Norman sculpture was influenced by
                Anglo-Saxon art, Zarnecki mentions this connection in "English Romanesque Scupture, 1066-1140"
 .
(+++)       There is a resemblance with the arch forms at Odda's chapel and Turkdean,  but the chancel arch could be Anglo-Norman, the star pattern and arch
                 is similar to those at Brewardine, see (*****).

(++++)     The cross cuts out a star pattern, similar to that at Brewardine, suggesting an Anglo-Saxon influence, see also (********), again there is a diagonal
                 relationship, parallel to the Cornish coast, and a further diagonal with the north west coast of France, passing through the Scilly Isles and the south of
                 Ireland, see also (++++++) here.

(+++++)    The pilaster strip in the north wall at Coln Rogers is mentioned in Clapham's "English Romanesque Architecture before the Conquest", noting that
                  they are usually terminated by a base block, which is absent here. The interior facing arches of the north and south walls, exhibit a typical use of jambs,
                  though the shape of the north arch is unusual. The jamb with respond in the exterior porch doorway is terminated by a base block, though the corner
                  capital is Norman, see (*****), the chancel jamb exhibits a beaded moulding, a Norman feature, similar to Mylor, see (********) and Cury. The
                 jambs of the interior south doorway are asymmetric, one being unusually short and possibly broken. The jambs and archway of the north door at
                 Brewardine are typically Anglo-Saxon. The 6-leaf pattern of the star designs might suggest that this form might occur with an even number of points in
                 Anglo-Saxon art. In even sided polygons, the opposite sides are parallel, in which case the method of harmonic variations variations doesn't work. For an
                 even number, one can instead consider bitangent degenerations with the tangent lines all passing through a point, in which case the tangent lines do not pair
                 into parallels, see also (*********).

(++++++) The use of jambs and a narrow archway at Cold Aston is Anglo-Saxon, see also (+++++), the star or snowflake pattern on the tympanum band might
                 be connected to the main Norman design of the church. The cross shaft has a braiding pattern, similar to the fragments at St. Oswald's Priory, see also
                (++++) here.            

(!)             Use of beakhead ornamentation occurs in the outer archway, alternating orders in the inner archway, as at Malmesbury Abbey.

(!!!!)          The tympanum and capitals are dated to about 1180 in Jerry Hibbert's leaflet on St. Peter's church, which agrees with Zarnecki's and the leaflet's
                  dating of the font. For more information on the volute capital, see (*******) here, but this is probably a late transitional version, (c1180; Zarnicki's
                  date, also in leaflet). The diaper pattern is typically Norman with intersecting diagonals, demonstrating the aesthetic of fragmentation. The details of
                  the font depict a square buckle, a spandrel between two arches, and the figure of Prudentia holding a staff with a cross. The spandrel form also
                  occurs in conjunction with Anglo-Saxon architecture, with a circular buckle of the same date appearing at Elkstone church, 1180 (Zarnecki), 
                  see (##).  

(!!)            Similar to the arch forms at Hailes Abbey, see (!!!).

(!!!)           The trefoil headed windows are similar to Hailes Abbey, while the interior lancet is typical of the period, the broader window has a slight apex, is
                  claimed to be a lancet, and is similar to early uses of the lancet form at Monreale, Sicily, see also (!) here. The pillar might be a development of the
                  Norman period, with a connection to water.  The use of circles in a cross is typical of the later Geometric style in England, this could be an early
                  use of this idea, dating the Abbey to about 1240.
 
(*)             Now part of Sweden, but, at the time of construction, a Danish province, see Liber Census Daniae, often referred to as Kong Valdemar's Jorgebok.

(**)           Anglo-Saxon feature introduced into Norman archiecture by Robert of Jumieges in 1067, the triangular design dating from Lorsch abbey.
 
(***)         Possibly built as early as 1200.

(****)       According to "English Romanesque Scupture, 1066-1140", by Zarnecki, cushion capitals are Anglo-Norman but had already been used
                  in Anglo-Saxon buidings; one can observe the simlarity with earlier designs, such as at Odda's chapel, Gloucestershire. He argues that they were
                  introduced between 1066 and 1100, dating the crypt to 1089.

(*****)     In the same book, Zarnecki argues that corner capitals and tympana were introduced between 1100 and 1140, "The doorways often had carved
                  voussoirs, tympana, capitals and shafts, he dates this part of St. Stephen's church  to 1120. The detail of the column at Hereford Cathedral
                  resembling the carving at Daglingworth, and the star patterns at Brewardine, with their centralised geometries, again suggest an
                  Anglo-Saxon influence. Again, there  is a similar influence at Byton,  Zarnecki notes that these abstract patterns "so typical of some Anglo-Saxon
                  carvings, survived in many works that date from the late 11th or early 12th century". The Agnus Dei symbol is unusual in that the cross slants diagonally
                  rather than vertically, as in the Valviscolo cloisters, Italy, Kilpeck, Great Washbourne and Temple Guiting, suggesting a stronger Norman rather then
                 Cistercian influence.

(******)  This belongs to the period of Later Romanesque sculpture, 1140-1210, discussed in Zarnecki's  following book. He dates Shobdon to around 1140,
                 idenifying the columns as the first works of the Herefordshire School, the porticoe with the trefoil pattern is influenced by Anglo-Saxon designs, but is
                 Anglo-Norman. The columns at the Priory church are later works of the Herefordshire school, again there is a combination of Anglo-Saxon and
                 Norman motifs in the archway and column.

(*******) Compare with the design in the cloister at Salisbury Cathedral.
 
(********) The chevron pattern, with a beaded moulding along the diagonals, is a copy of the design at Cury, suggesting a relationship between the 2 locations.
                    The diagonals in the cross of the archway is also a Norman feature, similar to that at Byton and Egloskerry, with a connection to the symbol of the
                    Knight's Templar. The diagonal passes between these three churches, roughly parallel to the North coast of Cornwall.

(*********) The corner capitals in the south door at Brewardine are typically Norman, the 11-leaf pattern of the star designs in the tympanum suggests that this
                     form can occur with an odd or prime number of points in Norman art. In the case of curves with odd degree, one can use the method of harmonic
                     variations to investigate the notion of genus of a curve, see also (+++++) The Norman corner capitals at Cold Aston are of the volute type, see
                     (*******) here, but, unlike at Brewardine, the tympanum has star designs, with an even number of 4 points, set on a diagonal square. Both star
                     designs could be reminiscent of snowflakes. There is a cushion corner capital fragment at Alderton, see also (****), the star design has 8 points,
                     and is again set on a diagonal square, showing that the Normans used an even or odd number of points in such designs.         
 
      (#)         An extensive analysis of the linear style in England is given by Bony, noting the influence of Norman art. In the east window, one can see both the
                    aesthetic of fragmentation and the use of Y-tracery. In the north window, one can see linearity reflected in the use of the lancet form, but there is
                    also a combination with the use of trefoils, a feature of Early English designs, and influenced by Anglo-Saxon designs. 

     (##)         Zarnecki dates the boss in the chancel vault to 1180, it depicts a circular buckle with 2 animal heads and 8 points. The dragon head also has 4
                     points on either side of the mouth, the grooving suggestive of Anglo-Saxon art, see (++), but the points are also similar to those used in Norman
                     art, for example at Mylor, see (********) and (++++++) here. The position of the buckle suggests a further link with the capital, possibly
                     depicting an owl, the beak in the middle, on the right side of the main doorway, pointed to by the right hand of the father in the tympanum.